Blog créé grâce à Iblogyou. Créer un blog gratuitement en moins de 5 minutes.

Wales And Marketing

Marketing consultancy

"Superfood" Posté le Vendredi 5 Décembre 2008 à 13h30


"Superfood": Super Power or Super mindset

An Exploration of Consumer behaviour perception


This dissertation is submitted in part fulfilment of

Master of Science in Marketing.


"I declare that this dissertation is the result of my own independent investigation and that all sources are duly acknowledge in the bibliography"





"We find no real satisfaction or happiness in life without obstacles to conquer and goal to achieve"

Maxwell Maltz June, 2004

"Superfood" was a health claim on food packaging that boosted sale with no medical proof according to the Food Safety Agency or real definition. With such effective argument it becomes critical to research the perception of such claim on consumer and how it does influence their purchase behaviour. Growth of the demography, ageing and climate change are some of the argument that raises the price on food. The selection of food will be more and more demanding for brand who wants to differential. The main attention is being to explore if such claims are real or just a marketing technique to boost sales. The research will first observe the diversity of perception through the literature then the methodology will observe three phase: Phase one the interviews with nine consumer, phase two an in-depth interview with three perspective dietician marketer and consumer with health concern. And Phase three the usage of the grounded theory as analytical method.

The findings expose several key themes emerging and relevant due to such claim. The fist is the perception on food and the concern with quality and the traceability (origin). Hence the disparity of value due to incomes and beliefs system constructed between society and family behaviour. The repetition of the same product when there is a frequent consumption also an increase motivation to pay more for organic food






Chapter One   Introduction                                                                                                                Page 1

1.0       Introduction

1.1       Exploration of the term "Superfood"

1.2       Aim and Objectives.

Chapter Two Literature Review                                                                                                        Page 13

2.1       Perception

2.1.1       Perception of food

2.1.2       Gestalt Psychology

2.2       Attitude

2.2.1       Elaboration Likelihood Model

2.2.2       Rational Vs Irrational

2.3       Communication

2.4       Placebo in Marketing

2.5       Individual decision-making

2.6       Health trends

2.7       Branding

2.8       Labelling

Chapter Three Methodology                                                                                                              Page 49

3.1       Ontological position

3.2       Epistemological Approach

3.2.1       Positivism Vs Interpretivist

3.3       Research objectives

3.4       Why Inductive approach

3.5.         Methodology Motivation and debate

3.5.1   Why Qualitative method

3.5.2   Qualitative Vs Quantitative

3.5.3   Motivation for Triangulation           The triangular in-depth interview           Debate triangular and other methods

3.6.     Interviews Method phase One and Two

3.6.1.      Phase One Consumer interview

3.6.2.      Phase Two  triangular in depth interview

3.6.3.      Debate with other methods

3.7.     Sampling

3.7.1.      Sample size

3.7.2.      The convenient sampling

3.7.3.      Qualifying criteria

3.7.4.      Probability Vs non Probability sampling

3.8.     Questionnaires and piloting

3.9.     Confidentiality and Ethics

3.10.   Analytical design

3.10.1.        Phase Three Grounded theory

3.10.2.        Debate with other analytical method

Chapter Four Findings                                                                                                                       Page 79       

4.1.     Interviews  Phase One and Two

4.2.     Consumer food Perception

4.3.     Consumer and food influences

4.4.     Consumer and the rational and the irrational

4.5.     consumer views of Health Eating

4.6.     Perception From Experts

4.7.     Perception From The consumer in controlled diet

Chapter Five Discussion                                                                                                                     Page 87

5.1.     Perception of food and Values

5.2.     Attitude Toward Food

5.3.     Perception on "Superfood"

5.4.     From Phase One and Two

Chapter Six Conclusion                                                                                                                      Page 100

Chapter Seven Limitation and Further research                                                                              Page 106

7.1.    Limitations

7.1.1.Limitation from the methodology

7.1.2.Limitation from timing (exposition)

7.2.    Further Research


References                                                                                                                                           Page 109

Appendix (List of "Superfood", Glossary, Questionnaire and Pilot…)                                            Page 142



Chapter one





"There is no love more sincere love than the love of food".

George Bernard Shaw (1925)


























1.0.                  Introduction


The Interaction with food can be passionate. Also, Champ (1997:370) points out that "Thanksgiving dinner in mid-afternoon are as fixed in most American households as preferences for particular foods". Therefore food can be part of traditions and culture. Champs also take the example of a pie, which "serves other needs beyond nourishment" (p370).

 Swiss chocolate is claimed to be the best in the world (Micheloud & Cie, 2007).

Meanwhile, Switzerland imports all the cocoa. In France "Cuisine" identifies as an Art the preparation of food as stated by Paul Bocuse famous Chef. (In Japan National Tourist organization 2007) Though, food can provide emotional feelings. However Molière claims, "One should eat to live not live to eat". And Hippocrates said "Let food be thy medicine and the medicine be thy food".

Herne 1995 using Khan (1981) identifies seven factors in order to understand what influence individual to a food preference (Personal factors, Socio-economic, educational biological physiological and psychological, cultural extrinsic and intrinsic) .In other words, food preference is not just to satisfy hunger, to reach the self- actualization as mentioned by Maslows' hierarchical pyramid of needs, where food is seen as physiological needs (Solomon 2002). However from the quotations food is source of all emotions, passions and cultural belongings. To clarify, the perception of food is more complex than just "eat to live".

Abuse of some Food cause diseases such as Obesity; Cholesterol, Heart attack, Cancer (Morris and Bate, 1999) etc…According to Keynote (2003) "between 2% and 8% of healthcare costs are linked to obesity" and over 70,000 case of cancer in Europe and from the same source states that 40 million Europeans are overweight.

If people kept their weight in a normal range 40% of endometrial cancer, 20% of kidney cancer and 10% of Breast cancers can be avoided (keynote sources 2003).

Christensen and Brooks (2006), a psychologist, suggests, "We are what we eat". Therefore the concern of people is no longer just a physiological need but also a way to express self-concept or to communicate. And adaptation from Blythe (2006) suggested that interaction and communication evolve like in a pool of meaning. Therefore food combines interaction between rational and irrational behaviour, which may explain problems, related to food consumption.

The consumer's perceptions have been widely studied through the decision making process the elaboration likelihood model with persuasive messages as developed by Petty and Cacioppo (1986). Also, the attitude of consumption diverge between cognitive approaches or hedonistic. Report from Mintel (2008) highlight important issue of childhood obesity by 9.9% at age of five to 17.5% by the age of 11. However Jebb and Krebs (2004) claim that the environment and technology have change more electronics and TV people are less active. The first approach refers to Aijzen and fishbein (1980:5)

"The theory is based on the assumption that human beings are usually quite rational and make systematic use of the information available to them."

The theory of reasoned action assess that "attitude are function of belief "p 7. Yet confirmed by Rosenberg and Hovland (1960) who state that attitude is divided in Cognitive, Affect and Behaviour. On the other hand, the second approach refers to the Self that has to be identified in order to understand the motivation. Underpinning the changing behaviour or self is due to the social environment that has the power the influence the behaviour as suggested by Michel Foucault (1986).


1.1.                  Exploration of the term "Superfood"

The relevant concern is that when brands and marketer create the word like "Superfood".

BBC news (2007) Titled "Huge rise in "Superfood sales". Some products such as blueberry have increased up to 132% consumption. According to Henry Enos (2007) (in BBC news, 2007) interview states "manufacturers use the "Superfood" label to boost sales".

The BBC news defines "Superfood" as those, which have a high nutritional value. There is no definitive list but the most commonly cited such foods are blueberries, broccoli, spinach and green tea. It is claimed that "Superfood" can maintain young-looking skin and protect against cancer and heart disease. Other "Superfood" include watercress, mangoes, oats, oranges, pumpkin, turkey and yoghurt. Another food to emerge is the Tibetan Goji berry - said to boost energy levels and even enhance sex drive - which Tesco started selling last September (BBC news, June 9th 2007).

The concern of healthy food is being a serious issue for multinational companies such as Unilever (Bestfood), Nestlé (Fresh products) or Kraft, also to retailer (Tesco, Asda, and Carrefour) and European regulation about clear labelling is taking the problem seriously BBC news, June 29th 2007).

The concern on Food safety is becoming also a serious issue for consumer De Jong et al 2004. For instance, Traceability and origins have never been so requested according to Mintel sources 64% of their sample in 2006 (over 15 years old) thinks it is important to know the locality and the organics property.







1.2.                  Aim and objectives

The aim of this dissertation is to explore the perception of the term "Superfood" and consequently, how this perception may influence purchase behaviour.


1.    The first objective is to critically evaluate the literature on consumers' perception, branding and labelling, Thus the exploration of rational versus irrational behaviour, decision-making, and health trends.

2.    The research will use qualitative data in depth of the consumer perception and meaning about "Superfood" and healthy eating.

3.    Analyses of the findings in light of the aim will be assessed regarding the secondary and the primary data in order express the evaluation of the perception and decision making with reference to  "Superfood"


Belief system and meaningful could provide argument to our decision influencing our purchase. The following exploratory will treat the consumer approach to the cited "Superfood" and how it is defined. From an interpretive point of view this research will try to understand the behavioural interaction between the rational "Superfood" proven efficient by Doctors and our eating habit and beliefs. Does the Superfood make us healthier or is it because we strongly believe that what we consume making use healthy.  Is a marketing tool in order to provide the push of product labelled as healthy?  . "Superfood" has quickly been seen as a developing labelling. The recent regulation from the government about the "Superfood" labelling come to protect consumer but the concern become focused on why such success as argues in BBC (2007). Therefore, the study on behavioural attitudes within the literature will provide several answers regarding consumer behaviour, Beliefs and the health food related. In March 2006 Mintel report developed the Functional food as represented by "Superfood" and "Superfruit". However "Superfood "differs from functional food from their unproved health claim (Mintel, March 2008).

Functional food according to the same sources refers to food with targeted health benefits. Also substantial reference will engage the experienced consumer supported by Post-modern marketing. By contrast the placebo effect commonly known in medicine has to be considered as rational issue to health. Mintel report March 2008 suggests that functional food scientifically proved of health benefit observe a growth by 171%.The evolution of the demography and the ageing of the population increase and motivate the concern on food and health. Governments in Europe are taking the issue seriously as it has impact on the economy is critical (keynote sources 2006). It is becoming crucial for stakeholders as serious food virus and infection increase the attitudes of an increasing lack of trust from consumers.








                      Chapter Two

Literature Review






"This is not just Food; this is M&S Christmas food"

Marks and Spenser (2007)






The claims from Marks and Spenser's company in 2007(available online from Daily Motion), is promoting food quality and fresh food ready meal. The perception of food takes an important part of the decision making process and especially the quality provided. To clarify, M&S found place share in the market of food industry competing with already established food retailer such as Tesco, Asda and Sainsbury's. In some ways from the perception of a traditional cloth manufacturer consumer conceive the right to M&S to play a role in the confection of quality of food.

2.1.                  Perception

2.1.1.  Perception of food

Solomon et al (2006: 653) define perception as:

                          "The process by which stimuli are selected organized or interpreted."

The perception takes part in a complex process where stimuli and senses play large role in interpretation. The perception is a long process, which can be altered by sensation and meanings. Constant literature has provided research study about food perception such as the perception of food safety risk (Yeung and Morris 2001 and Verdume and Viaene 2003).

The Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), Salmonella, E-coli, Bird Flue (Knowles et al. 2007) and all risk perception on safety food change attitude and behaviour even as psychological interpretation according to Yeung and Morris (2001). Also the perception due to the changing environment such as the organic food (Aarset et al 2004) and farm animals' welfare (Harper and Makatouni, 2002) or technological improvement such as genetic modified food (Verdurm et al 2002 and Verdurme and Viaene 2003). Hansen (2005) suggests the approach to divide the perception into extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli. Therefore for example the intrinsic stimuli perception would be the "Fat content" and the extrinsic perception would be "the brand and Price". Besides Jover et al. (2004) highlight that quality perception is different before and after purchase.


2.1.2.  Gestalt psychology

Wertheimer famous psychologist has developed study on Gestalt psychology. Gestalt is from the German which means, "The whole" which "is greater than the sum of its parts" (Solomon et al. 2006:51). Solomon et al. (2006) define Gestalt psychology as "a school of thought that maintains people derive meaning from the totality of a set of stimulus rather than from an individual stimulus. In other word the whole picture is more relevant than each part taken separately. And this wholes are "grouped into: meaningful, configuration, similarity proximity and the like", in order to create a simple gestalt. King et al. (1994) develops the heritage from Max Wertheimer founder of the Gestalt psychology and provides explanation on how perceptions of whole picture using diversity of senses have impact on attitudes. It is use in advertising or brand.  According to Elliott, (1997: 286) "Consumers no longer consume products for their material utilities but consume the symbolic meaning of those products as portrayed in their images". Gestalt psychology works in an environment of experience and context building the meaningful perception (King et al.1994), Riley (1994) and Hansen (2005) in research papers dedicated to raise perception of consumers on the quality of food.

 However, Johnson et al (2005), Houghton et al (2006) and Mitchell (1999) raise the attention on the perception of risk as factor influencing the purchase behaviour in food risk context (Frewer et al 1994) such as: Functional risk, financial risk, Physical risk physiological risk social risk and time risk. And food may just appear rationally functional (Frewer et al. 2003). Besides Townsend (2006) support the argument that affective influences the risk perception. Moreover Townsend et al 2004 present the fact behaviour can be related to emotional responses.

2.2  Attitudes

2.2.1        Elaboration likelihood model

On the other hands, Marketers and Psychologists (Petty and Cacioppo (1986); Azjen and Fishbein (1986)) have tried to understand and predict the consumer behaviour; therefore companies tried to accurately conceptualise and define how the purchase behaviour is processed.

Petty and Cacioppo (1986) highlight that people's behaviour follow an Elaboration likelihood model which explain how consumer receive the information through a process divided in central route (motivational state and the ability to make the purchase). Rothschild (1999) suggests that consumer may only have concern with health claim in food after a process where there self-interest is involved.

Petty and Cacioppo (1983, 1986) argue that the involvement in a product is more likely to raise attention on advert than someone else. Frewer et al (2003) suggest that the food perception can be socially amplified especially in food risk perceptions. Foxall et al (2002:88) said, "They are more likely to experience more cognitive responses to the message" the cognitive knowledge individuals may change attitudes consequently to perceived stimuli. And For instance food observe a diversity application to our senses enough to motivate behaviour accordingly with Peter-Texeira and Badrie (2005) research on food packaging and perception.


Although, the peripheral route refer to none active thinking (and less consumer involvement) with just association with positive or negative cues such as personality endorsement. Meanwhile, the ELM model treats people differently according to their motivation and personality. The second route refers to the meanings and beliefs and aspect using intuition as seen in Leikas et al (2006), Lowenstein et al (2001), Rottenstreigh & Hsee (2001) and Slovic et al (2004).


Magnum, in 2007 advert, claims priority of ice cream on sex. And spinach presented as "Superfood" in BBC Wales 2007 use to be the energetic resources for Popeye the sailor cartoon as early as 1936.

The relevance of this model is to present combination of choice from a dichotomised approach. The cognitive approach and rational is widely developed in the literature and especially in food concern in academic review such as "Appetite or Food Science".

The personality seems to have substantive impact and accordingly the individual's own perception (Sirgy 1982) and the self-concept provide diversity of behaviour facing similar stimuli. Onkvisit and Shaw (1987) and Mehta et al. (1999) argue that the understanding of self-concept is significant to identify the influence from the self-image individuals have of themselves. Thus, Kotler (2004) define the self-concept as "self-image or the complex mental pictures that people have of themselves". Moreover in context of food Pavlov gave evidence of the rewards property while Skinner raised the attribute to memory (Solomon et al 2006).

However some research developed by Garber et al. (2000) has raised the impact of our senses in food taste. To explain, these authors have developed the approach that the colour of food has direct impact on the food decisions and taste. Therefore it provides the importance of our senses on any purchase and as food can be tasted with our five senses it become a serious issues to understand how the interpretation is made. Several experiences were set up to understand how perception really works. Foxall et al (2002) use as an example from Copulsky and Marton 1977 the case of Frank Perdu: In context of food the fifth senses involve expectations and in addition use to feed his chicken with Marigold and petals and corn to give the yellow skin to his chicken referring to healthy and tasty to consumers.


2.2.2        Rational vs. Irrational behaviour

On the other hand, Ajzen and Fishbein (1980) support the argument on a rational model allowed to explain the correlation between attitude and the behaviour Allport (1936) defines attitudes as "a mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual's response to all object and situations with which it is related. Rosenberg and Hovald's (1960) claims from the stimuli attitudes is divided in three component: the Affect, the Cognition and the Behaviour; or commonly named as the ABC model (Solomon et al 2006).

These models are empowered to acknowledge the there is a rational in our attitude and behaviour. For example in order to control crowed organization dedicated to the civil defence (EADS in 2006) has developed some software program in order to establish a "cognitive behaviour modelling". However the ELM with the peripheral route observes no active thinking just association of positive or negative cues such as personality endorsement. The consumer behaviour raises the attention on beliefs and meanings developing unpredictable behaviour. Barnes (2003) has developed meanings as subjective and beside Fournier (1998) added that meanings exist inside every single customer. In addition Duck (1994) (cited in Barnes 2003) sees "the meaning systems "as central. Hence use the terms "shared of meaning to raise the awareness upon its diversity.


2.3  Communication and "noise"

Marketers have to face the frequency of exposure. To clarify several authors post-modern marketer raised the impact of the increase of the experience and knowledge that change the following perception and purchase behaviours.

Semiotics refers to study of the meanings associated with sign symbol and brand. Although, several environmental factor (Sibbel,2008) such as the culture the time and the social environment influence the food choice Moreover research using Bourdieu's Theory pointed out correlation between the taste of food and the social class belongings Oygard,L. (2000). Continuous interaction becomes the most appropriate in marketing communication. And the literature sees a growing literature context in the linear communication model such as Schramm or Shannon-and Weaver's models.

The communication and perception evolving between the product and individual is altered "noise" (Targowski and Bowman, 1988; Duncan and Moriarty, 1998; Smith, 2004; Blythe, 2006 and Skinner and Stevens, 2003).

According to Fill (2002), due to the amount of "noise surrounding us" the marketing communication task is becoming more and more difficult. The non-Verbal perception is argued by skinner and Stevens as an important factor disturbing the stimuli within a communication process beside the prerogative of interactivity is the between sender and receiver has to be continuous difficult to sustain in food sector any media or technology used to Food has the ability to appeal to all our senses during the purchase. Indeed, colour, taste or texture, sound and smell

Petti and Cacioppo (1983) developed the Elaboration likelihood model. The Elaborating Likelihood Model will provide serious element about the way people perceive messages Petty and Cacioppo (1986) suggest that people observe an Elaboration likelihood model which explain how consumer receive the information through a process divided in central route (motivational state and the ability to make the purchase) Consequently, the ELM model treats people differently according to their motivation, personality and the conflict of emotion (Labroo and Ramanathan, 2007).

For instance, the peripherals route is the form perception is conceptualised through interpretation and meanings. A meaning is an evolving argument developed by Blythe (2003, 2006) and post-modern guru Stephen Brown (1999).

On the on hand, Blyth (2006) developed the concept of the pool of meaning. In other word interaction and communication evolve like in a pool of meaning and at every interaction provide different stimuli due to different income from the environment

2.4  The Placebo in marketing

Stewart- Williams and Podd 2004 define placebo as 

                              "Substance or procedure, that has no inherent power to produce an effect that is sought or expected".

Meanings, belief and rational behaviour find scientific resonance with the term Placebo. Gestner (1985) suggests that price can lead the interpretation about the quality of products, therefore low price conduct to the perception of low quality. Experience from Levin and Gaeth (1988) labelled differently the same meat. As a result consumer perceived a better taste to the one labelled 75% fat free compare to the one 25% fat free. This experience emphasis that perception can be disturbed, for this reason the placebo effect has a key role in defining "Superfood".

According to The Chambers dictionary (2005:1159) Placebo is defined as:

"Inactive substance administrated as a drug either in the treatment of psychological illness or in the course of drug trials"

According to Berns (2005), Shapiro and Shapiro (1997) (in Malani, 2006), Irmak et al 2005 and Shiv et al. (2005) links can be done between placebo effect and Belief system underpinning marketing action. In other words, the strong beliefs in the efficiency of a drug have direct impact on health and well being. Shiv et al. (2005) expresses the fact that consumers' belief and expectations can influence experience. Shiv et al (2005) use to develop their experience the combination of conditioned stimuli and unconditioned stimuli to test the impact of the energy drink and to create the therapeutically experience that motivate the expectation. For instance the critic made by Kirsch (2004) highlights the activation of this expectation that is already a suggestion to the result. Nevertheless, Shiv et al. (2005) contests that belief and expectations are effectively leading to the placebo effect.  Therefore marketers are concern about the power of suggestion contrasting with the real effect of the product. This might be an explanation linking the belief and perception what is perceived about branding and the loyalty to the brand find echo in medicine with the placebo effect. Irmak et al. (2005) suggest, "motivation plays a key role in changing response to a brand placebo at a physiological level"(p408). The motivation factors have been studied in a context where people want the physical symptoms according to Vase et al. (2003). For example Irmak et al. (2005) studied the placebo effect in marketing using the energy drink as support of the study. Subsequently the research came out with the correlation between the belief of the real active product and the direct effect on the physiology of the participant scientifically proved. In other words inactive goods and product may have the same result as medication. Malani (2006: 237) suggests, "placebo effect may be a behavioural rather than a physiological phenomenon". Patients more optimistic may transform their behaviour. Indeed, "the ulcer patient who reduce his or her consumption of spicy food or the cholesterol patient who exercises more often in a manner that complement their medical treatment". Irmak et al. (2005) support the argument that " Consumers' non-conscious beliefs"(p406) provide significant change due to experience even when "the price- quality relationship" does not seem to have large influence.  Scott (2006) relates a wide literature about the belief also the importance of the meaning issued. For instant, the perception of food may change due to the motivation on expected effect. Eating light product in a diet program is only applicable following the Guideline Daily allowance amount and the individuals' requirements such as activities.


2.5  Individual decision-making

Rational and irrational behaviour may also affect the individual decision-making due to the influence of the perception and the changing environment. The literature such as Grunert and Ramus (2005) about the online purchase of food, Krystallis and Chryssohoidis (2005) about the concern of consumer and the sustainable decision to pay more organic food and Sharp et al. (2007) related to the mindless decision making state that purchase is a reply to problem recognition in environmental context.

"A consumer purchase is a response to a problem"

                                       Solomon et al (2006:258)

Sharp et al (2007) suggest that the decision making emphasize "context environmental issues"p528.  Therefore the purchase of the product processed sooner. Four stages are identified: The development and perception of the need and want, the pre-purchase planning and decision-making, the purchase act itself and the post purchase behaviour (Referring to the succeeding and to repetition of the purchase). Solomon et al (2006) defined three steps in the decision making process: the problem recognition, the information search and the evaluation of alternatives. The recognition of the need can be internally such as the hunger and the external stimuli such as smell (Kotler, 1999). The process is determined to elaborate product choices recognize the nature of the need and the delay that is taken to be identified may vary depending on the context environment (Lye et al. 2005). For example Aikman et al (2006:114) state that "the information underlying food attitudes, how this information relates to attitudes and behaviour and whether or not healthiness perception of food differ depending on how food are presented".

It is a rational process to proceed to an information search before the purchase however according recent claims from the European union the growth of obesity is still significant from 30% to 80% in WHO (world health organization 2007). Solomon et al. (2006) established a continuum conceptualizing the buying behaviour. In three types the Routine response behaviour the limited problem solving and the extensive problem solving. This continuum evolve according to five factors: the cost, the frequency of the purchase, the consumer's involvement, the product class and brand and the time dedicated to the search of information (Lurie and Mason 2007 and Essoussi and Zahaf 2008). Despite this relate the behavioural influence low cost and promotion can motivate an impulse buying for example (Hollywood et al 2007). And the experience gained from the time dedicated to the purchase (see Daborn et al. 2005).

In marketing, the consumer is perceived as a black box (Cornwell et al 2005 and Demirdjian and Senguder, 2004). The consumption is the finalisation of a decision making process. Nevertheless the consumption may be stimulated by several factors: the brand, the product image, the impulse buying, Confused by over choice, the price conscious. Solomon et al. (2006) provide detailed characteristic in comparing the limited problem- solving and the extended problem solving. The approach is made according to factors such as motivation the information search, the alternative evaluation and the purchase and concerning the food property the growth of food supply blur the request to higher involvement to purchase food quality. In addition the labelling and the growing information from media about food nutrient Roberfroid (2005) suggest a higher search however technologies provide all information requested .For example in BBC news 2001 "Superfood" is claimed to be advised to pregnancy and toxoplasmosis disease. Parmenter (2002) claims the lack of trust from manufacturer as presented by De Jong et al. (2004). However The Ecologist (March 2008) sustain argument about "the Future of food "and the environmental change same as the consumer behaviour as it is clamed "we routinely bin uneaten a third of the food we by without giving it a second thought"p50 as the climate is changing a food shortage is coming with an expected rise of prices.

The consumer is value "Maximiser" Kotler (2003) and consequently attracted by the company, which provide the most value to him, in the other hand the customer, can be perceived as risk minimiser (Weber et al. 2002). According to Solomon et al (2006) five risks can be identified: the physiological risk, the social risk the physical risk the functional risk and the monetary risk.

Roberfroid (2005) claims that the 20th century made discoveries in nutrition. Therefore Roberfroid introduced the concept of functional food defined a

"Food that may provide health benefit beyond basic nutrition"p2


For instance, Functional food is clearly established as a concept (with a diversity of definition) but play a role in reducing risk related to disease rather than preventing it. This concept is a perfect example on how food can be raised in term of involvement to consumer and at the same time reducing the health risk. Technology and research sustain the development of functional food and like for the "Superfood" the decision-making cannot be fixed as it evolves with the changing environment. Although, "Superfood" is consequently reduce the physiological risk and at the same increase the monetary risk. However the level of involvement will provide rational information to the decision-making. Comfort and Hillier (2006) argue that healthy diet and healthy eating varied over time and evolves scientific advances in nutrition also with p839"culture, personal belief and aspiration". Moreover, Goldsmith et al (1997) argue that the purchase behaviour motivated by the consumers' expectation to gain a status. Even though Kilsheimer (1993)(cited in O'Cass and Ewen, 2004) defines the consumption as "the motivational process by which individuals strive to improve their social standing through the conspicuous consumption".

Solomon (2004:596) defines the Conspicuous consumption as: "the purchase and prominent display of luxury goods to provide evidence of a consumer's ability to afford them" thus, consumption expenditure is undertaken not to maximise independent individual utilities functions but also impress to other people. O'Cass and Frost (2002) concluded the consumer use the status of the brand and product in order to satisfy his status. Therefore marketer can benefit from the understanding of consumer behaviour and symbolic underpinning the product's status.

According to O'Cass and Frost (2002), O'Cass and Ewen (2004) and Tsai (2006), the brand influence the purchase behaviour. Indeed, as brand become universal the "consumers can construct identities across cultural boundaries" Tsai (2006:648). According to Solomon (2004:598) the impulse buying is defined as "a process that occurs when the consumer experiences sudden urge to purchase an item that He or She cannot resist". Rook (1987) supports the argument that there is a conscious and unconscious part that explain the "unreflectively". Moreover Rook (1987), Rook and Fisher (1995) sustain that the impulsive buying is daily influence. In addition, Phau and Lo (2004) describes the impulsive buyer as the influence by emotive attraction qualified as irrational rather than rationality of a judgment such as price consciousness.

For Dubois, (2000) Consumption is socio-cultural factors with interpersonal behaviour. The perceived social image and the expression of self-identity will greatly influence consumer behaviour and purchase decision. Leo, Bennett and Härtel (2005) highlight that several factor explain the purchase behaviour such as the cognitive approach, observational learning and affective responses, also the consumer's culture play an important role in determining value and attitude. Subsequently, O'Shaughnessy &O'Shaughnessy (2007) exert debate with Abela (2006) in order to determine the influence of marketing in the purchase behaviour.

Several studies have determined the decision making in term of nutrition. Herne (1995) suggests a study on the food choice developed by the elderly age. Jamal and Goode (2001) discuss that consumers do not purchase products for their material values but rather for the symbolic meaning the product might emit, as products now have high symbolic meanings as well as attributes. Furthermore, a chosen product brand will have a compatible image with the consumer's perception of himself. Henry, (2002) points out that customer purchases can be influenced by either the functionality of the product or service. Besides, Walsh and Mitchell, (2005) explain that over-choice, too much marketing communications, generic brand that look similar to the original may confuse the decision making and increase the difficulty to choose certain products. According to Solomon et al (2006) "a purchase decision can involve more than one source of motivation" (p 95). Brown and Brown (2006) and Aylott and Mitchell (1999) developed selective motivational conflict such as approach and avoidance as source of stress Solomon et al (2006) express three type: the approach- approach conflict, the approach- avoidance and the avoidance –avoidance.

The approach - approach conflict named as the theory of cognitive dissonance it related a choice that can be made cognitively using the decision making process accordingly.

The approach –avoidance conflict is what explains the success of diet food or functional food (Roberfroid, 2005 and Frewer et al. 2003). The consumption is made according to the fact consumer want to avoid "negative consequences"(p96). And finally, the avoidance -avoidance is the conflict of two negative choices; consumers tend to naturally to reach positive goals.

The rational behaviour and irrational have been the subject of a wide academic material in nutrition theme. Several research studies reveal the conflict between the nutrition knowledge and nutrition behaviour. As food involves senses and perception it raises also the emotional factor supplying irrational behaviour. Herne (1995) studying the food choice made by elderly people is influenced by physical and mental health. In other word, the approach – conflict motivational conflict become more intense as the risk for a disease become higher. Roberfroid (2005) defines the "balanced diet" as :

            "An appropriate mixture of food items that provides at least the minimum requirement of nutrient and a few other components needed to support growth and maintain body weight to prevent the development of deficiency diseases and to reduce risk of diseases associated with deleterious excesses". P2

Rationally cognitive approach in nutrition behaviour should follow the definition. Daborn et al (2005) supports the argument that "Inappropriate nutrition is a significant causal factor for many major diseases affecting all developed countries." In the same research paper Daborn et al. (2005) looked at the impact of gender (men), and low income related to healthy food concern Added to the fact that Oygard (2000) assert that " women are more oriented towards healthy food than men "p161. However Saergert (1982) develops relevant research study that behaviour and knowledge are not strongly correlated. Despite, Scarpi (2005) provides detailed study about the traditional behaviour and goal oriented but Scarpi claims that the hedonic behaviour takes a significant place in contemporary studies on consumer behaviour. The hedonistic approaches raise the fact some financial risk and time search become no more important. The hedonistic behaviour spend more and in higher quantity according to Scarpi (2005). Hirschman and Holbrook (1982) state "hedonic consumption designates those facet of consumer behaviour that relate to the multisensory, fantasy, and emotive aspects of one's experience with product"(p92). Babin et al. (1994) Qualified as the "fun side". On the other hand, the utilitarian is defined to be rational and task related Scarpi (2005). Hence, Babin et al. (1994:644) qualified the utilitarian behaviour as the "dark side". Babin et al raise attention on the shopping value related to the hedonic and utilitarian behaviour. The research leads to the perception to a more experienced consumer. Therefore consumer are more related to express behaviour from previous experience and more hedonistic. The consumption pattern is becoming more difficult to predict be cause of its segmentation Hollywood et al. (2007). Moreover Hollywood et al. (2007:695) claim a lack of research concerning "the motivation influencing a consumer purchase and or behaviour "within the literature and especially in food. Andrew and Currim (2002:65-66) state:

"Consumers are limited information processors who seek to conserve energy when having perhaps dozens of purchases in lower involvement supermarket shopping environments therefore they may attempt to use the same decision heuristic across product categories"

Mintel report (2006) states that 34 % claim the convenient to explain why people consume burgers and 37% think it is ideal for kids. Although study from Mintel January (2007) reveals that the consumption of sweetener between 2002 and 2006 raised up to +4.4% this expands the literature on hedonistic consumption. Blake (2007) suggests that the understanding of what people know about nutrition can be a way to communicate nutrition effectively.

 Postmodern marketing suggest that fragmentation and Hyperreality reflect more competition therefore confusion in product choices and the experience from the buyer using the available technology to consume in context with more extended offer. According to Firat et al. (1995) in post modern marketing there is a loss of commitment due to the fact that customer are assumed to be experienced with traditional tools from marketer (Patterson, 1998 and Brown, 1995). Therefore the relationship marketing is changing perspectives. Brown (1995:21) says, "Postmodernists reject attempts to impose order and coherence upon the chaos and the fragmentation of reality." To clarify, without order the approach is no longer to a long term approaches, hence as relationship marketing involve in long-term view post-modern marketing implies the transformation to a new form of relationship.

In consumer perception rational and irrational interact from different perspective. The expectation for food prevent from health sickness is rational. However the expectation of taste may vary with individuals and even context (mood, time, season climate change). The heath claim of "Superfood" motivates the research by keeping in balance the rational and emotional viewpoints.


2.6  Trends

BBC new article (29 June 2007) titled " Product claiming to be "Superfood" will be banned unless the claim can be proved ". This is the serious dilemma faced by consumer.  The regulatory protect consumers from marketers and incremental claiming. Over 100 products have been claimed as functional food and with high property and benefit about health according to the BBC article. The "Superfood" labelling raised the consumption of blueberries by + 130% in the last two years , However Henry Enos (marketing expert) in BBC news (27 June 2007) claims that even with the whole box of cereal the "Superfood" contain 2.7%. It came to Henry Enos' attention that even eating the all box " you wouldn't make up one of your five a day items that you are supposed to eat to make you healthy".

What motivate such success of superfood refers to what are the concerned of local health and safety authorities such as the obesity problem, cholesterol, diabetes, heart disease and other cancer related to what consumer eat. According to Keynote sources (January 2008) the success of the functional food "can be attributed to the fact that they represent a method of eating healthier without changing one's diet". According to the keynote source (2007) 43% of their samples were interested by food with health claim and 47.3%of women represent it and 40.1% of men .It is provided that 52% in Wales are interested. Nevertheless, the effect of "Superfood "needs a long-term study and effective survey to claim that it can eradicate some cancer according to and The European Union regulation is based on the European food Safety Authority to protect consumer from health property claim without being scientifically proved. The Food standard agency highlights the banned claims about the efficiency on cholesterol or heart disease starting from September 2007. It is regulated by the European Nutrition and Health Claims regulation.


Food issues are related to health and safety regulation according the food Safety Agency , the DEFRA in France the French the Food Safety Agency (AFSSA) partner of the agriculture's fair which claim that the consumption of fruit raise by 16% to 18- 79 years olds  and Europe the European food Safety Authority develop a large concern about the growth of the obesity. At European conference Catherine Geslain-Laneelle (executive of the EFSA) 2006 claim that 1 in 5 is obese and 95% of European agrees that obesity is a health danger. Several phenomenon such as the traceability ( of the food and the origin of foods developed regulation and attention regarding to the safety of the product. Today for a meal the ingredients may come from different part of the world however identifying the real origin of the product is being more complex to chase the long run of the supply chain the DEFRA (2007) (Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs) for example insure the organic and farm labelling which means with regulated pesticides and with the concern of the environment Nowadays the serious issues is due to the globalization is the traceability of the product.

Mintel report 2006 associates "Superfood" with what is called Functional food. Food with specific health claimed benefits. The review on functional food reveals the existence of consistent literature related to claim on health benefit.  Niva and Makela (2007) introduce the term functional food as providing health and well-being or even diseases. Intel report 2007 suggests that 41% of the sample studied think those balanced diets need to be a way of life and 62% diet for their self esteem rather than 51% diet for health. The development of this food category is due the medicine development and the development in food engineering Niva and Makela (2007). However "Superfood" does not include Genetic modified food and According to Mintel report (2007) organic food consumption as a lifestyle therefore the effectiveness of "Superfood" cannot be proven unless it is part of a diet way of life.

According to Keynote sources 2004 in functional food Japan is the only country with adapted regulation to these products from 1980 (Shankar 2007). However the claims of health benefits deal with trust from consumers and Ostberg (2003) qualify as simulacrum (sign, image model) of the functional yet compared as Hyperreality well-known as a key theme of the Postmodern Marketing. Health claim and functional food raise the attention on the branding influencing the purchase behaviour. And the effect of their leading role on such health benefit claim such as Jordan cereal with "superfood".

2.7  Branding  

The American Marketing Association (1960) defines brand as:

"A name, term sign, symbol or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from competitors"

Branding has found difficulties to be defined as part of the symbolic and meanings (Tsai (2006) and De Chernatony 1993, 2001) and the perception from consumer emphasis the diversity of its interpretation. Brand use marketing tools such as: advertising and public relation, in order to strengthen its image (Thakor and Kohli, 1997).  De Chernatony (2001:4-5) states "Brands are powerful entities because they blend functional, performance-based values which are rationally evaluated, with emotional values which are affectively evaluated". To clarify, consumer can rationally evaluate food the functional value refers to performance, quality and convenience and in term of emotional value brand refers to integrity cheerfulness and caution. However, the purchased product might be bought for its emotional value such as taste referring to memories for example. Kohli and Thakor (1997:207) argue, "Branding does influence a customer choice". Example with blind customer developed by Saporito (1986) reveal knowing the brand name Kellogg's has increased the number of satisfaction. De Chernatony (2001) and De Chernatony and Segal-Horn (2003) expresses that value is important to consumer because it is appropriate to their lifestyle and provide a need satisfaction.  Moreover Brand Such as LVMH French company ( 2008) dedicated to luxury goods produce wine in California (Newton), Argentina (Terrazas de los Andes) and Australia (Green point). "Consumers no longer consume products for their material utilities but consume the symbolic meaning of those products as portrayed in their images" (Elliott, 1997: 286). In addition, De Chernatony (2001) argues that the brand image reflect the consumers' self due to memory and network information.  To clarify, French Wine has its brand image however origins of the product provide different approach in term of emotional satisfaction. Kohli and Labahn (1997) propose the key objective of brand, and on of the key objective is to establish product differentiation but also, help to convey intended position, establishing distinct segment. Brand must be identified and facilitate the trademark registration.

According to Bhat and Reddy (1998), O'Cass and Frost (2002), O'Cass and Ewen (2004) and Tsai (2006), the brands operate through symbolic to consumers. Ries 1995 suggest that brand must clutch attention, the product should belong to consumer's perceptual map, the brand should be associated with visual image and the brand communicate about the product. Despite wrong perception may damage the core brand (De Chernatony 1998).

De Chernatony (2001) suggests "that brands are complex…. but ultimately they reside in consumers' minds"p19 and the success of a brand depend on the ability to interpret consumers' value. Barnham (2008) argue that the traditional perception of Branding through AIDA model (Attention Interest Desire Action) is rejected nowadays as the interaction are more emotional and Psychological than rational.

 Indeed, as brand become universal the "consumers can construct identities across cultural boundaries" Tsai (2006:648). Moreover Solomon and Rabolt (2004) describe the symbolic self-completion theory where the consumers with undefined self use the symbolic of the brand to complete it. Phau and Lo (2004) additionally described the impulsive buyer as being more influenced by emotive attraction qualified as irrational rather than rationality of a judgment such as price consciousness. Belk et al. (2005) argue that we cannot dissociate ethics and culture. Thus, culture provide the perception about the consumption it include the self-concept into moral norms. Blythe (2006) defines branding as " applying the name to a specific product in order to improve its recognition among consumers" and differentiate them from competitors (Kotler, 1999). Although Azjen and Fishbein (1980) argue that the attitudes toward brand depend on the level of belief attributed to the product or brands. And Foxall et al (2002) highlight the brand image as representing the expression of the "Consumer' mind"p63. Branding add value to the product and create differentiation with competitions. Therefore branding is related to consumer perception Brown 1999 or serendipity (accidentally) Brown 2005.  The brand name is not sufficient to guarantee security to the product. To clarify, Coca Cola is the perfect example with its product Dasani. Targeting the water market in U.K. they created the product Dasani.

Dasani was launched in the UK in January 2004, and on March the 3rd 2004 Matthew Beard from "The Independent" reveals that in Sidecup (Kent) Coca cola is using tap water for its bottle that cost "95p".  Sold as pure still water however Beard (2004) argues, "Coca-Cola ads calcium, Magnesium and sodium bicarbonate to the tap water". Local authority has found later Bromate harmful minerals appearing after being processed by Coke. The Brand had to stop the European market. Therefore the brand names have its limitation in term of food and drink safety. The literatures have come across the malleable self due to brand effects Fennis et al. (2005). Nevertheless research Guy and David (2004) study based in Cardiff pointed out the impact on the places and the pricing upon the healthy food, underpinning the connected food choice Herne (1995). "Superfood" is labelled by Brand such as Jordan (See Appendix III) without any medical evidence. For example recent claims that individuals should drink eight glass of water a day appear to be just a myth and nobody knows where it is coming from (CBS news April the 2nd 2008).


2.8  Labelling

The "Superfood" labelling grew up on packaging and used by some brand as made claim with health benefit until the European regulation clarified the disparity from functional food. Silayoi and Speece 2004 agreed with Underwood et al 2001 about the impact of the packaging on senses and eventually on taste.

Labelling came out with the concern of consumer interest on what is in the product. However labelling is useless unless we do know what we are looking for.

Nutrition knowledge and the interest on the labelling have been a serious issue with dramatic consequences.  Davies and Wright (1994) use the effectiveness of the Elaboration likelihood model to analyse how effective the communication through the labelling is efficient.

 Blythe (2006) defines and develops arguments about the labelling and the related issues and the key components. Labelling deals with complexity in competitive environment. And brand face regulation determined to protect consumers in Europe. However labelling in Europe raise a serious issue, in other words Europe is asking brands to provide the proportion of the ingredient. This is a problem for brand that has to deal with the protection of recipe.

Postmodern literatures argue those consumers are more aware and educated with marketing tools and do more that just satisfying basic need. In other word how people treat the information from the labelling (Higginson et al. 1999) and belief system might explain the approach of the brand to the consumer. "Superfood" has increased subsequently labelling growing complexity. However the security need explain the need to more labelling according to Knowles et al. (2007). In France for example labelling is made by the "Institut National de L'Origine et de la Quality". This organism provides the labelling "Appellation d'Origine Controlee" which guarantees the origin and the traceability.

The Food Labelling regulation (1996) in UK and came to protect consumers but also the British retail consortium BRC (2005) global standards food and the farm foundation 2004 are also involved. Besides, Specific label and control concerning religion increase the purchase process like Muslim (Hallal food concern) or Jewish (kacher), Diabetes concern about sugar, obesity and cholesterol and any kind of allergies  (nuts or Cheddar). Mintel reports 2007 confirm that 94% know about the date of validity and just 79% about the sugar content.

According to the Food Labelling regulation (1996) requirement food shall be marked with:

The name of the food, a list of ingredients, the appropriate durability indication, any special storage conditions or usage conditions of, the name or business name and the address or registered office of either or both of (the manufacturer or Packer or a seller established within the European Community), the place of origin or the provenance of the food and instruction about the preparation of the food if needed Straete (2008). However the national consumer council (1995) consequently to the environmental and behavioural change relate the growing amount of labelling and logo on the packaging. For example the eco labelling the study raised by the National Consumer Council (1995) highlights the confusion in the understanding of the labelling and consumers agreed into standardization and to distinguish between the right and wrong organic production (Wier and Calverley 2002). For example UK has been the subject study farm products Straete (2008) and organic food (Padel and Foster, 2005). Although organic endorse private and public labelling from organism cited by Franks (2003:360) such as: Biodynamic Agricultural Association, Irish Organic Farmer and Grower Association, Organic farmer and Growers, Organic Food Federation, Scottish Organic Producers Association and the Soil Association Organic Marketing Company.

The word "Organic" according to The Chambers dictionary (2005: 1062) has two main definitions: The first definition organic "derived from natural forms" Hence the second definition suggest that organic is Chemistry denoting compound containing carbon (other than binary compound and salts) ultimately from biological origin.

Organic is widely used according to the National Consumer Council (1995) and provide some example of Flour made by Doves Farm. National Consumer Council (1995) states that organic farmer sustain fertile soil by rotation of different crops with regard to the ecosystem care. Introducing Organic food raised the problem of the cost according to Post et al.2008

In addition and in order to prevail the crowed of labels (Blyth 2006), the National Consumer Council (1995) observe the dolphin friendly used by Princes and Tesco, hence the veggie friendly popular in UK since the food problems in Europe developed by De Boer et al. (2003) and Frewer et al. (1993), but also nuts free and more logo concerning the allergies common problem. In other word the behaviour is changing and the expectation same as the request from consumer are more demanding to brands. However Heimback (1980) argue that consumer has difficulties in interpreting percentage on labelling and provided research on illiterate in Britain. Davies and Wright (1994) sustain that labelling is likely to become an important issue. "Superfood" is one of the growing labels promoting food with super power against cancer and other disease. However Anna Parton dietician in an interview on BBC Wales (2007) states "There is no legal definition for a "Superfood" at all, which actually means that any manufacturer could potentially promote their food as "Superfood" which makes it extremely confusing to consumer".

 Food labelling survey from Mintel in January 2008 reveals several precious information and confirmation about the changing behaviour and the need of awareness contrast with the complexity to understand and the environmental convenience about knowledge Saergert 1985 argue that the nutrition knowledge do not predict the nutrition behaviour. Moorman (1998) suggests that the growth of available information "has exacerbated consumer uncertainty" because of the extended use of the product. Though, the label can also motivate the information search. Besides, Jayanti and Burns (1998) developed the argument that consumer are more sceptical about private claims on labelling. The geographic labelling is being confusing between local and Regional for example as stated by Straete (2008). Straete, highlights the example of a farmer producing local cheese as opposed to the dairy milk collected from the regional farmer.  Llbery et al 2006 developed besides explains several terms in order to map the locality of the food. Llbery et al 2006 they define the locality food as "having been produced and processed in a particular place but often circulate more widely" (p214), as opposed to local food Straete (2008). Abbott (1997) claims that the public need help to accurately understand nutrition information. Nevertheless this claims is contrasted by the fact awareness does not guarantee the adoption. Shine et al (1997 a, b) developed research studies on attitudes towards labelling and discovered that even if the concern on nutrition information is important there is a lack of understanding of the scientific terms. Gourlie (1995) cited in Shine et al. (1997) claims that the nutrition labelling create the interaction between scientific and consumers. Although, Morris (1991) and Lewis et al (1994) agreed that the labelling information expand the information search from consumer. Grankvist et al 2007 report that research has concluded that thee organic fruit and vegetable have a better taste. However, Fisheries and Food (1995) reveal that a large number of respondents to their research did not define RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance). Despite, Stare (1993) expresses pessimistic opinion about the labelling efficiency. For example: nutrition information in frozen vegetable is written "Guideline Daily Amounts are guidelines only for adult", however "individual's requirement will vary depending on age, gender weight and physical activity". Therefore it become difficult to determine what the real value to individuals is. Marks (1993) argue that the concern on nutrition information is related to the pressure from the advert. Kihlberg et al 2005 found that the false labelling on bread had an impact on the perception of the taste as the bread was labelled as made with organic raw product.

Evans and Miller (1995) raise the attention on the claiming made about the antioxidants. Bhaskaran and Hardley (2002) observe the attitude and beliefs upon the claim of neutracenticals food (Food with health property)


As a result from the literature review it is clearly emphasised the important role of the perception in consumer purchase. However the arguments from Jebb and Krebs (2004) have to be taken into consideration as suggested that the environment evolve to a less active consumer. Moreover Davidson (2007) and Lvovich (2003) relate the lack of activities in overweight and obesity issues. This argument is supported by the growth of the home leisure spent by consumer according to keynote (2007) especially in-home viewing. This viewpoint can support the argument using the previous perception and especially the placebo effect to raise the hypothesis that "Superfood" may be promoted by consumer that make less activities but use "Superfood" as a cure or even as placebo influencing well being.












Chapter Three












The literature review highlighted the impact of belief and meaning in individuals' perception. Therefore, the consumer behaviour is changing through context but also the emotional factors when dealing with taste plays a role during the decision making process. "Superfood" is a labelling that raise important issues concerning consumers and health eating. For instance, it becomes critical to explore the "Superfood" perception. In other words, whether "Superfood" reveals interest to health eating or is it a placebo effect for people who do not want to make the effort of a diet lifestyle and use "Superfood" to satisfy mindset and well-being.


3.1.        Ontological position

The author agreed with Scapen and Yang (2008:16) who define ontology as "Concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of the reality, being and the world". The claim you are what you eat can be extended that the Food consumer tells about this research will take an interpretive point of view as enounced by Weber (2004:4) where "Person and reality are inseparable" and life is an inter-subjective reality. However, Scapen and Yang (2008) provide a critic on Llewellyn (2007) about the notion of single or differentiated reality. For instance, the critics are justified by the notion of subjective or objective point in term of single reality. According to Llewellyn (2007) suggests that "the term Differentiated realities is used to distinctive aspect of the world", which refers to the interpretivism.  The interpretive position and the regard on individuals thought and belief complete the nominalism approach.

According to Easterby-Smith et al 2002 the nominalism use a set of truth established depending on who is submitting it. Meanwhile, the experience and the views from individuals are the influence upon the perceived reality. The criticality about the subjective and sensitive position is crucial to the research (Easterby-Smith et al 2002).



3.2.        Epistemological approach

The Author is taking a relativist (Smith and Fletcher 2004) social epistemological approach due to the fact food perception can be disparate. Indeed, triangulation will be settled to explore "superfood" from opinion experts, consumers and consumer with health concern.

The consumer behaviour perception of food has evolved due to the environmental and contextual issues Jebb and Krebs (2004). Barnham (2008) highlights the influence of the emotional and psychological on our perception. Technology and social behaviour have trouble the perception of food. Disease and long term discovery of functional food mirror consequently the consumer attitude toward healthy food Robertfroid (2005). The Behaviour in food concern is related to several factors applied to consider the individual as part of the world in socially constructed knowledge Hjorland (2005). Eating is by nature a physiological need with health related VanTrijp and Van der Lans (2007). And Llewellyn (2007) reminds some reality about the world with some mental states and order of realities. However Herne (1995) identifies as individual build his identity the social, cultural and environmental influence the perception of healthy and non-healthy and good or bad food. Johnson et al. (2007) sustain the relevance of the communication and experience in society. It is a social and environmental constructivism. For instance, Lye et al. (2005) supports the argument that consumers are adaptive decision maker according to the surrounding context. Therefore a constructive model of decision making cannot be always reliable, as the preference from the decision maker is not established in cognitive motivation.

Shankar et al. (2006) raise the attention on the theory from Michel Foucault who sustains that the power from the society influences strongly our behaviour. Indeed depending on the level of self-consciousness even it is a strong or weak personality similarly complete or uncompleted self-concept. Foucault suggests that the influence of the society is an interaction of power and we become good or bad strongly influenced by the society.

Addis and Podesta (2005) provided a study on epistemology in light of the marketing research. This paper explores the evolution of marketing from modern to post-modern marketing and the importance of the experience in the construction of theories. Addis and Podesta (2005) support the argument of the influence of the emotional in the purchase yet confirmed by Caru and Cova 2003. However the positivist point of view would have ignored the impact of the hedonism influencing the individual's purchases. Zemborain and Johar (2007) argue that interpersonal influence are highly involved in word of mouth communication but also the influence existing on internet even if there is a wide source of information and peer pressure for expert.


3.2.1    Positivism Vs Interpretive

The research process can be identified within a continuum between the positivism point of view and the interpretive school yet named post positivism Weber 2004 and Johnson et al 2007.

These two approaches are completely different from each other. The positivist refers to the scientific approach and rational objective perception of the environment with a clear separation Smith and Fletcher (2001). However the interpretive point of view take a subjective point of view considering the meaning and belief of individuals and at the same time include the behaviour in context of the surrounding world Smith and Fletcher 2004. The interpretive viewpoint is seen as socially constructed. Nevertheless the lack of measurability and the disparity when repeating the research are the claim supported by the positivists. The debate started from the early support from Husserl of an interpretive point of view Laflamme (2006). However in marketing Interpretivist are commonly represented by post modern marketer Brown 1999, Patterson 1998. Firat and Venkatesh 1995 and Firat et al (1995) and in other word they related that the environment and the social context have a significant influence on the individuals behaviours and consumers 'experience.


3.3.        Research objectives

The research is established as an exploratory of the consumer behaviour in light of the food consumption and especially of the concept of "Superfood". This aim is taking a interpretive approach according to the side that state consumer try to maximise the pleasure with the consumption therefore meaning and belief might only emerge from a qualitative approach. The present exploratory approaches follow several research papers dedicated to the consumer behaviour perception (Proctor 2000). In concern of food several authors have used the exploratory to express their research such as Damen and Steenbekker (2007), De Jonge et al. (2004) and Daborn et al. 2005.  The exploratory is seen as relevant in understanding a problem Saunders et al. (2007) or highlighting issues Collis and Hussey (2003). Moreover Adams and Schvaneveldt (1991) sustain that the flexibility of the exploratory approach have the ability to evolve from broad view to more narrow focus on the objectives.

An exploratory approach suppose according to Saunders et al 20007 the applicability of several following method: the experiment, the survey, , the case study, action research grounded theory, ethnography and archival research .

Lee and Broderick (2007) denounce the opposition between the empiricism and the logical positivism in a continuum from inductive to deductive position.

Beliefs and Meanings highlighted by the literature raise the attention on the phenomenological (Goulding, 2005, 1999, 1998) approach needed to understand the way individuals behave as they do with irrational motivation Easterby-Smith et al. (2002). Several authors have developed the phenomenology as appropriate to perceive the complexity of human behaviour and on the eminent French phenomenologist is Michel Henry Yoneyama (2007) provided explanation of the Henry's point of view and the part what is called "our living " that interact with the notion of the perception of the reality of the world.


3.4.        Why Inductive approach

The position has been made to provide this exploratory interpretive with an inductive position as opposed to the deductive position (positivist).

According to Saunders et al (2007), Riley et al (2000) the induction position refers to the collect of meanings but also a clear understanding of the context. For instance, Hamlin (2003) argues that the appropriate position of the researcher on deductive or inductive approach can influence the decision making about the perception of this research. Therefore, the inductive position must be kept clear of the deductive position and the generalization of the observations. However Hyde (2000) argues that it is possible to use a formal deductive approach with a qualitative research. Nevertheless Johnson et al.2007 sustain this built of theories through qualitative research and empiricism do not reach the ethnographic analysis. Moreover the study from Johnson et al (2007:38) reveals disparity in defining the "good" qualitative research.



3.5.        Methodology Motivation and Debates

The literature review has raised several important factors when dealing with food and consumer behaviour exploratory. First the meaning refers to the interpretation from our perception. The second is the belief contextual and environmental education society and culture play a large part in what consumer see as right. Finally the conflict involved between rational and hedonistic aspiration.


3.5.1.            Why Qualitative method?

This research supports Gregory (1995) who claims the qualitative research is the most appropriate approach to explore social eating behaviour.

Indeed, rational and irrational have been developed as substantive effect perceived from the behaviour. Gummesson (2007) raise the fact that qualitative research explores more than just the verbal. For example gesture or posture can express an answer with a meaning content. Some research studies have concluded the disparity between what is seen as a rational behaviour Healthy eating and the irrational the growth of fast food industry as well as diet products. For instance the concept of "Superfood" may take the rational part as functional food (Mintel 2007) However it can also been taken to justify the usage of "Superfood" as a pretext to free consumer's mind from any diet perceived as difficult to sustain.


3.5.2.            Debates qualitative Vs Quantitative.

According to Proctor (2005:221) "Qualitative research examines the attitudes feelings and motivations of product users". However some component such as the interview and questionnaire can be allowed in both approaches as suggested by Easterby-Smith et al (2002).

 The motive is to understand the object and meanings behind such behaviour. The most appropriate Method is the qualitative approach based on several research paper Daborn et al. (2005). The qualitative research and in depth interview with opened question will provide argument on the shape belief system and healthy eating Brug et al. (1995). Moreover, Sirsi et al (1996) suggest the usage of a triangulation relevant to clarify consumer choice within a continuum hedonistic to utilitarian goods. Okada (2005) agree with Shafir, Simonson and Tversky (1993) to say that " people try to construct reasons for justification and it is easier to construct reason for utilitarian consumption than hedonic consumption", indeed, Hedonism is difficult to evaluate and quantify People Choose the hedonic consumption when compared to utilitarian however consumer prefer the utilitarian when goods are presented jointly. Although, Lee and Broderick (2007) remind that the qualitative data collection is time consuming.

The method supported relatively to this research will use qualitative data collection convenient sampling. The qualitative research methods have been widely suggested in consumer behaviour research such as Goulding (2005) and Easterby-Smith (2002). Lyons and Cole (2007) associated the qualitative data collection as a meaning – making process. Subsequently triangulation through questionnaire supporting two forms of interview will face the secondary data.


3.5.3.            Motivation for Triangulation

The process of the data collection will be assessed using a triangulation between the secondary data, the in depth interview with standardized question and semi structured in depth interview with non-standardized question. Jack and Raturi (2006), Saunders et al (2007), Riley et al. (2000) and Jankowicz (2005) prone the relevance of such method, the triangulation sustains the completeness of the research. Jack and Raturi (2006) developed five type of triangulation:

ü Data triangulation (Riley et al. 2000)

ü Using multiple observer (Smith and Fletcher 2004)

ü Combination of observer and multiple observers.

ü More than one theoretical scheme

ü Using more than one qualitative or quantitative data source (Saunders et al. 2007).  

Nonetheless, Llewellyn and Northcott (2007:197) enhance the triangulation in referring as "through triangulation a researcher will be more sure that inconsistencies have been resolved". In other words the diversity of the sources provide clear evidence and confident exploration and implications               Alternative methods

Stokes (2000) presents the interview as effective to explore some marketing concept. However Ratcliff (2002) clearly argues that researcher have to observe certain neutral role. Critics made about the interview refer to the lack of interaction and the debate created by the focus group generate source of data. Moreover the single opinion may restrict the findings to more limited outcomes. However the influence of the society in relation with food is more complicated .To clarify, Christensen and Brooks (2006) said "you are what you eat", thus food relates to emotional and individual beliefs that may limit the research to a common (Bloom, 1989) and ideal perception of food (Stokes and Bergin, 2006) and not individual as people can feel uncomfortable to reveal their real aspiration of food and behaviour.

Church (2001) raises the attention on the survey method highly recommended in attitude and opinion about a theme. Although, the method able the collection over time. However this method takes into account the demography and in order word time consuming. Church (2001) sees the discrepancy using online survey and telephone survey yet contrasted by Schillewaert and Meulemeester (2005) about the problem of the related sampling and the match of the population cannot be accurately satisfied.

Silayoi and Speece (2004) support the usage of a focus for a deep understanding of the behaviour in purchase decision.

The success of the Focus group refers to the data collected consequently interaction. The focus group can be created between 6 to 9 people. However Focus group requests certain skills and abilities to collect the observational data Saunders et al (2007). Researcher must present some mediating skills in order to permit the flow of the debate (Ruyter, 1999). However, Silayoi and Speece (2004) acknowledge that focus group do not measure precise knowledge related to the topic. Blythe (2006) considers that interaction operate as a pool of meaning besides Skinner and Stevens 2003 precise the role of noise in communication process therefore as food mirror is become difficult to evaluate the ideal self from the real self in a focus group with stranger.  Moreover, other method is presented such as the self administrated questionnaire (Saunders et al 2007). Individuals are requested to answer to the question online or on a delivered questionnaire, although the method fail to collect the meaning behind the words and some development of answer might be relevant to collect


In summary, the method will follow three phases.

The phase one takes the in-depth interview to consumer, the phase two applied to the expert and selected consumer due to diet, the Phase three will be dedicated to the grounded theory.  The analytical design chosen to suit this research will be presented in detail, and then critical debate will be reviewed across the other analytical methods available.


3.6.        Interviews Phase one and Two

3.6.1.            Phases one - The In-depth consumers interviews               The Interviews Method

The interviews are going to be assessed in face to face and online interviews (Smith and Fletcher, 2004, 2001). Interview with semi-structured questions take place in a convenient context chosen by the interviewees and the most appropriate. Using semi-structured questionnaire, this will allow collecting meaning and beliefs related to interviewees' answers.  However the face to face will be prevailed. Hence interview will be assessed between 30 to 45 min each, despite this expected timing is flexible. Moreover a pilot of interview will provide a testing of the questionnaire and to tight closer the answers to the aim and the core exploratory. The interviews are going to be assessed in face to face, online and in paired interviews (Smith and Fletcher, 2004, 2001).               Interviews method in data collection

Saunders (2007) suggests that the aim of an interview is to take the position of expert and to explore with the participant issues surrounding the perception of health eating and "Superfood". According to Proctor (2005:221) "Qualitative research examines the attitudes feelings and motivations of product users". In collecting data the research can be made through qualitative and quantitative approach. However some component such as the interview and questionnaire can be allowed in both approaches as suggested by Easterby-Smith et al 2002. Alam (2005) develops the interview as onerous in term of cost and timing as opposed to the quantitative data. However the reliability of the data has emphasised critical statement about this method. The literature argues that the data collection is the subject of the research subjectivity or objectivity. The interviews have clearly the advantage to collect more in depth beliefs and meanings. In addition Smith and Fletcher (2004) highlight the ability to apply the triangular depth interview to compare and critic three points of view.

Bryman and Cassel (2006:41) denounce that the interview method as a "key tool for qualitative researcher". However Bryman and Cassel 2006 clearly assert that the interview is an active process and during the interaction there is a co-construction of meaning involved.

The exploratory on food reveals the influence of symbolic meaning and belief when researching on food Heston Blumenthal states:" we have our own, individual personal experiences emotion and memory" (see  )

The relativist degree of involvement and commitment are to take into account. Rational and emotional may only find an understanding with a cross of information

On the one hands, the single method choice has the advantage to be easy to collect and cheap. However the exploratory can only be made from a single point of view. In this research "Superfood" is a claiming that does not have a regulatory approval.

Hammond (2005) sustains that the contradiction of findings may lead to the triangulation. To clarify health claim and emotional attractiveness are two opposite that need to be explore from divers angle the fact that highlighted by Just food articles

The UK's Food Standards Agency sustains issues about a lack major concern. In addition, The US Food and Drug Administration proclaim that "Superfood" is just a marketing term which has no regulation. And finally the Food standards Australia New Zealand support the argument that it is a nutrition education concern rather than a regulation one. Nevertheless Just-food website claims "The perception and the influences on consumer purchase are multi causal". Therefore the research need to explore the diversity of question the term "Superfood" beside the fact the term with no definition may have meanings. Saunders et al 2007 sustain that researcher can combine individual qualitative research interview or survey and the quantitative method with the questionnaires. On the other hand, beliefs and meaning is complex to collect. Singularity of opinion motivates a multifaceted exploratory. The multiple methods are divided in multi method and mixed method. However (cited in Saunders et al 2007) Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003 assert that the multi method is only profitable to the research when bring important support to researcher.






3.6.2.            Phase 2 Triangular in-depth interviews

Three will be processed within the in-depth interview with non- standardized question to explore a Formal Scope between expert (Marketer and dietician) and concerned consumer (diabetic) highly committed to diet.

However the triangulation is a time, space and person consuming method (Jack and Raturi (2006).

According to Smith and Fletcher (2001) the Depth question raise "psychological and emotional dimension". In addition, Saunders et al (2007) is the opportunity to deeply open the research to news perceptions related to individuals' experience. However Ratcliff (2002) developed several application of the interview and the neutral role of the interviewer is critical.

As complementary to the interview operating with consumers this triangulation will collect the perception from the rational point of view highly involved and concerned with what is happening with "Superfood". The involvement of the chosen interviewees enlightens the exploratory from different perspective. Furthermore, the scope has an impact on the influential factors perception. The depth interview will be applied to collect the data from expert from their field. The triangular interview will use semi structured but non-standardized question to highlight issues from three angles of perspectives:


·       Perspective 1: The marketing Expert.

This point of view will provide the concern in marketing about "Superfood" labelling. The perception of this concept consumer expert will help to detail the conflict between the actual behaviour with the theory and ideal behaviour. The perspective given by such opinion helps to establish comprehensive distinction between rational and emotional factors.


·       Perspective 2: The dietician expert.

This opinion will endow with rational and practical approach to "Superfood". Although, the daily experience with consumer is essential to understand who the people are looking for information and the kind of need consumer are asking for. The evolution of the medicine and technology help the growth of knowledge about functional food. However the claim of healthy benefit can only be done with medical proof. Therefore it is critical to understand the validity if such claiming.


·       Perspective 3: The consumer in diet survey (Diabetic)

The consumer has been chosen due to a concern to eat healthy food because of health issues involved (Diabetes). Thus, this point of view will explore the influence to "Superfood" in surveyed eating program. The knowledge and information about nutrition related to diabetes is highly expected to cross expert opinion as involvements and commitment regards to healthy food become critical. Such experience is beneficial to communicate the influence of knowledge in purchase behaviour even in risk context.  



3.7.        Sampling

The sampling settled in this research is using a convenient sampling. Interviewees have been chosen according to their relevant expert opinions. This selection will provide the explanation on the sampling method used it will then be debated.

3.7.1.            Sample size

In qualitative research the size of the sample have to take into account the time consuming and the cost. However Diamantopoulos and Siguaw (2002) made it clear that impact of size have an influence on the outcome's reliability.

This study motivates the aspiration to twelve interviews divided into two-sub group nine consumers intended to highlight the attitude and motivation toward purchase behaviour related to "Superfood ". On the other hand three in depth interview are conducted to collect data from expert and experienced interviewees.



3.7.2.            The convenient sampling

Several studies on consumer behaviour and attitude using interviews were developed with a convenient sampling, such as Yang (2005), Park and Burns (2005) and Ahmed et al. (2007).

The convenient sampling has been chosen due to the low cost involved and geographically convenient to face-to-face interviews, to clarify, the qualifying criteria covered by the Protection act (1998) and the exempt from the second selection of in depth interview motivated some of the selection. Furthermore according to Saunders et al (2007) the convenient samplings concern small size of sample. The purchases of food have a little variation between consumers even if bias and influence have to taken into account. The selection of sampling to triangular in depth interview satisfies their expert opinion or health condition. But also it is depending on the expert that would answer to the author's interview proposition.


3.7.3.            Qualifying criteria

The sample will be selected following several layers. The first selection to satisfy the data from customer will be assessed by a qualifying question to a random sample. This selection is motivated by the data protection act (1998) and the under 18 will be avoided and consumer active in their purchase of food in other a free determination of what the interviewee consumer by his own choice.   


3.7.4.            Probability Vs non probability sampling

Saunders et al (2007) differentiate two approach of sampling the probability sampling represented by the random, the systematic, the stratified random the cluster and the multistage sampling also used in Shiu et al. (2004). By contrast Onyango et al. (2007) use a probability with the assumption of the rational behaviour of consumers. On the other hand the non-probability includes the quota sampling the purposive the snowball the self-selection and convenient sampling.

The method used for this research is the non-probability sampling. According to Saunders et al (2007) and Smith and Fletcher (2004) the non-probability sample is the most appropriate for qualitative research although the size of the sampling. Moreover the non-probability samples are considered to be applicable for exploratory methods. However the non-probability sampling do not represent the population therefore the reliability is difficult to evaluate

The random sampling was also considered as method. However the regulation on age and the triangular in depth interview restrict to an appropriate selection that avoid the criss-cross of opinion.

Cost saving and timing are also non-negligible factor influencing toward the convenient sampling. Consumer purchase their own food Quality of information, Saunders et al (2007) pointed out the distinction between five forms of sampling: The quota sampling, the purposive, Snowball, self-selection and convenience sampling. The error is a serious issue, which this report has to be considered. Easterby-Smith et al. (2002) establish that research face three type of perspective and highly important to keep in continuous checking of the validity concern the positivist point of view, the reliability and the generalized data. Although, Zikmund and Babin (2007), four characteristics have to be taken into consideration to determine how useful the data might be: "Relevance", "Quality", "Timeliness" and "Completeness". The relevance of the data collected is a serious issue in a research study. However, the convenient sampling and the tested questionnaire help to a clear understanding about the aim and objectives of this research. The quality of the information collected and the reliability is subjective perception and can be affected by misinterpretation. The size of the sample represents the first limitation for this research to generalize any concept from the findings. Meanwhile, the misinterpretation or consumer emotionally involved can expect to be listened (Chisnall, 2001).

 According to Proctor (2000) the quota sampling is a cost effective compare to other methods. However, in qualitative research a convenient sampling will be more appropriate to the time available and the cost that would need. 

The quota samplings provide a representation of the population in order to come up with a more redundant result with the reality. However, in term of consumer behaviour studies with an in depth concern about the belief and meanings through a qualitative research the size of sampling has low no impact. Moreover the quota sampling does not match the qualitative research as for a qualitative data collection each category of the population would not allow small size of sampling (Tarkiainen and Sundqvist, 2005, Miles et al 2004 and DeJong et al 2004). Therefore the convenient sampling is time and cost saving.

Furthermore the research attempt to raise knowledge same as ignorance as expressive data. Besides, some food disease and personal may disturb the answer. To clarify allergies, diabetes, cholesterol, Heart attack risk or obesity is kind of personal symptoms private that factor motivating certain behaviour.


3.8.        Questionnaire and Piloting

The questionnaire will be set up with open question appealing developed answer in order to collect the motivation and interest in food healthy food or functional food. As suggested by Easterby-Smith et al (2002) and Saunders et al (2007) in phenomenology perspective multiple method to build the argument and the construction of interpretive arguments. Two form of questionnaires standardized and non-standardized questionnaires to the in depth interviews. The method supported will be the semi structured. Question to consumer are standardised in order to collect a wide scope of perception and influences on the other and the in-depth interview are non-standardised and help to collect rational perception in order to face the formal and informal influence and perception of "Superfood".


3.9.        Confidentiality and Ethics

The interview process can only be applied under confidential condition protecting interviewees. The respect of the privacy and the information are settled according to the Data Act Protection 1998 in U.K. ( Researchers must observe certain code of conduct ( when dealing with the society largely developed by the social research association ( By this code the anonymity of the respondent are preserved and recorded interview will operate in complete agreement with the interviewees.

The ethics will operate in respect of the convenient place, time and way of communication (online, Face to Face or phone) that suit the timetable of both parties.


3.10.    Analytical design

This phase will first introduce the method used to analyse the data collected, and then using appropriate academic critical review the author will conduct analytical design method introduced in Saunders et al. (2007). The debate will relate the limitation of the Grounded theory even if the presentation of the method will provide serious advantages in consumer behaviour Glaser and Strauss 1999.


3.10.1.        Phase three Grounded theory

Goulding (2005) differentiates three approaches to research. The interpretive point of view identified the Ethnographic, then the phenomenology and finally the grounded theory. Mansourian 2006:389) point out how the Grounded theory matches "an inductive analysis of a qualitative dataset".

Established in sociology environment the grounded theory was first settled by Glaser and Strauss (1967) (in Glaser and Strauss, 1999). Goulding (1998) ascertains the efficiency of the grounded theory in light of its multiple sources of data. Goulding (1999) emphasised different approach between the Phenomenology and the Grounded theory widely exposed in Glaser and Strauss (1999). Goulding (2005) established the efficiency of the grounded theory as using principles coming from external source of data used to build en empirical analysis.

In addition, Goulding (2003) review the consumer behaviour in contemporary post modern environment. Indeed, influence of media, incremental experience and fragmented play a key role to explain such evolving behaviour. Goulding (2000:840) states "Grounded theory was developed in order to generate through the systematic and simultaneous process of data collection and analysis". However, Selden (2005), Mansourian (2006) and Lyons and Coyle (2007) critically denounced some limitation of the grounded theory.  Two main critics have been highlighted the difficulties to reach a measurable answer due to multiple steps in the grounded theory. Moreover, Selden (2004) questions the reliability from the library information sources. Nevertheless, according to Goulding (2005) in grounded theory they are crucial values to analysis the interview gathering the common themes and comparison with different interview. Although the study may rise several concept and issues related to the studied phenomenon. However the non-standardized in depth interview request to distinguish the critical concept in order to organise the comparison and valid argument between interviewees. In qualitative research information gathered from divers sources have to be "balanced" Easterby-Smith et al (2002: 117). Nevertheless Mansourian (2006:397) establish sever question researcher have to keep in mind to use the GT: Remain open to the data with no predetermined conjecture (Allan 2003), Avoid to effect of any preconceived ideas, to code the data properly and to establish when to start and when to stop analysis and finally the value of a code affect on its importance in the final theory

In grounded theory there is a need to understand context and timing but also consider the holistic point of view. Besides, Easterby-Smith et al (2002: 123) suggest seven main stages to analysis:

1)    The formalization

This stage refers to the transcription of the data shared with beneficial reliability from the interviewee due to the relationship with the researcher.

2)    Reflection

The reflection relates the examination of the collected data with existing research and literature.

3)    Conceptualization

This stage prone an explanation highlighting the main important concept (Goulding, 2005)

4)    Cataloguing concepts

The analysis will be done line by line (Goulding, 2005)

5)    The Re coding

The re coding take into account concepts from different interview providing the same ideas but presented in different ways that have to be re-coded.

6)    Linking

The linking is the perception of the holistic view and the link with empirical and existing theories.

7)    Re- evaluation

This stage suggests the disparities that emerge from interviews and the fact that some issues might have been more treated than others. And the re-evaluation reconsiders the data in order to satisfy the aim and objectives. However, Lyons and Coyle (2007) encompass the risk to diverge from a clear transcription from interviewees due to the fragmentation of data. In addition, Harwood and Garry (2003) reveals the limitation of such method due to imperfect communication analysed. The Data Sampling process will be assess with a selective coding practice for the triangular in-depth interview although the selection of the interviewee will follow an open code practice, in other word sampling will be selected as food consumers. Although Selden (2005) argues that Grounded theory is a less satisfactory tool that it seems to be from the start.

Equally important the grounded theory has the advantage to be able to us the support5 of the secondary data Goulding (2005, 2001, and 1999). This ability to use the combination of method is one of the strength of this theory Glaser and Strauss (1999). In food consumption there is a large amount of desk research revealed in the literature review. However the limitation is due to the lack of resources about "Superfood" from academics, meanwhile the growing attention from the media (BBC news) is mirrored by academics concern about functional food. Accordingly, Lyons and Coyle (2007:97) express that "Grounded theory can present problems in terms of providing advance details of a sample, calculating costs gaining ethical approval and predicting the length of a project".


3.10.2.        Debate with other method analysis


Bryant and Lasky (2007) denounce the danger in an over use of the grounded as a raising problem for academics often chosen regardless to other epistemological alternatives. According to Saunders et al 2007 in a inductive based approach and to analyse the qualitative data several procedure are available:  The data display and analysis for example Collins et al 2007 and Ndubisi (2005) use a positivist approach for an important sampling size to analyse the data. The template analysis is highlighted in a study by Guise (2005) reveals the usage evaluation and statistical tools used far from the exploration of beliefs and meanings. The analytical induction Johnson (2004) (cited in Saunders et al 2007:498) defines analytic induction as "the intensive examination of a strategically selected number of cases so as to empirically establish the causes of a specific phenomenon". For instance Johnson et al (2007) observe and define the relevant impact of the validity of data from the qualitative research. Besides, Wilson (2004) debates the difference between the analytic induction and the grounded theory. Wilson argues that the analytic induction is most appropriate in some cases that need external validity. Although this method is best in building and testing theory The grounded theory the critics developed by Bryant and Lasky (2007) refers to the positivist part browed by the model to interpretive purposes the discourse analysis is viewed by Haider and Bawden (2007:535) as subjective approach in context of "information poverty" and according to the Foucauldian approach of the social construction. And Bryant and Lasky, (2007) see the narrative analysis in comparison with the grounded theory .The narrative analysis have been criticised to provide explanation with no demonstration as opposed of the grounded theory with the usage of "I" (e.g. Parry, 2003) with no demonstrative proof.













Chapter four




"Consumer benefits from the consumption of so-called "functional" foods are potentially very wide-ranging, and are associated with different advantages to human health and quality of life". Frewer et al (2003:722)



4.1.                  Interviewees from Phase One and Phase Two 

From the Phase one nine interview where conducted five women young professional and students named (Consumer T, Consumer V, Consumer S, Consumer G and Consumer C) and four Men young professional and students (Consumer A, Consumer N, Consumer Y and Consumer M). Moreover two consumers have been piloting in order to test the question before starting the interview this revealed. From the size of the sample there was a limitation in finding the same proportion of people who knew about the term "superfood". Therefore as presented in appendix the interviewer added the notion of health benefit to allow consumer to list product they perceive to be healthy. For instance, this had the advantage to relate belief and meaning behind any product presented such as "Spinach, seafood, Caviar, Broccoli, Blueberry, Bread, Herbs, Green Tea…"


On phase two the marketing Expert will be named Expert H and the dietician as Expert C. Both are fully recognised and respect in their respective disciplines

The interview with Expert H followed a face-to-face interview. While the in-depth interview (Expert C) was questioned on the phone.

And final the Consumer in controlled diet named Consumer M.A. was interviewed on the phone. This consumer has diabetes and in December 2007 had four days seminar in hospital to control the diabetes in strict control of diet. In addition, lectures and tests have been set up to inform patient about: nutrient caloric value, sugar and fat content in food. This consumer is an example expressing the influence of the new knowledge in the purchase behaviour and the new perception about food with value and meanings contents.

In order to test the validity of the questionnaire to consumer the first interview was conducted to clearly identify the meaning understood from each question. The selections of the interviewees have followed the criteria early established. Moreover this research will use the analytical method using the Grounded theory. Although, face-to-face interview combined with online interview have been developed. As related by (Cassell and Symon 2004) the face to face interviews has the advantage to collect beliefs and meanings. However the authors believe that the social and ideal self may interferes with the answer as with food consumer provide personal opinion with the attention on how they are going to be perceived. From the phase on the collection of data from consumer highlighted the complexity of consumer to underst6and what "Superfood" may represent. Interviewees are tempted to find the rational answer. However the perception of food diversified that consumer found difficulties to group food into one category. The testing of questioned reveals that consumer need to be enlightened about what type of food product they have to look for in order to centralise the perception.

4.2.                  Consumer and food perception

The food perception appears to be the consequences of several factors the financial constrains, the environmental (and geographical ability to access to the located products needed. Moreover the childhood and family's value act on the perception on what healthy food really means and why the effort is not made to consume fresh food for example. However financial factor are not an issue for some consumer they enhance the value of what they eat on the benefit expected but also on reducing the risk from excessive chemistry ingredient (Consumer T)

4.3.                  Consumer and food influence

Traditional marketing tools seem to be the most effective way to reach the information about food. The TV advert is the most commonly tool cited by consumers. Furthermore, billboards local poster and also the Word of Mouth build kind of trust in food. However beside the information labelled consumer are allow testing the product to get an experience of it and then depending on the result the perspective on further purchase may vary consequently to the result form the tasting.

Even if consumers claim themselves to be rational the unidentified taste play a large role in deciding for a particular product.

Loyalty can be created with the brand according to the experience of taste. For example the loyalty to a particular ketchup brand (Consumer A)

4.4.                  Consumer: the rational and the irrational

Consumer seem to be rational and one interviewee pointed out that age (Consumer C) is a factor that raise the attention on health eating as the risk of getting health disease become more important. The interest is on the labelling (Consumer S), the nutrient (Consumer T) and date of validity from all Consumers, also the traceability (Consumer S, T, C, Y and M). However, the health eating experience was initiated by the parental influence (Consumer S, T) or culture and origin (Consumer MA, C). For instance the rationality come behind sensory taste and emotional memories or just based on the repetition of the purchase previously established with the parents (consumer A)

(Consumer T) is a rational consumer who eats healthy who select carefully fresh product in supermarket but state "Sometime I feel like McDonald is a "Superfood" with all the advert and people going I feel like in Disneyland I go there even I know it is not healthy but I like the taste". According to Heston Blumenthal (nd, in ) "It has been shown that flavours can be passed from mother to baby through the amniotic fluid as early as 11 weeks (six Months Before birth) by the time that we are born into the world, we have already experienced many of the flavour from our mothers' diet". Therefore when (consumer c) claims some product to be healthy the list may come from there. Besides (Consumer A) perception of "Caviar" as "superfood" reveal that the perception of healthy food cannot be affordable be any consumer and create a tribal community of those who can spend more for fresh and healthy product


4.5.                  Consumer view on health eating

"Superfood "Does not have any echo from the sample of interviewee of this research. However BBCwales argue that just the superfood claim raised the consumption of blueberry by 130%. Nevertheless the concerns on healthy eating are highly exposed by interviewees. For example (consumer S and Consumer T) express that they buy organic food even more expensive. CONSUMERS S asserts that the location where the information is provided at the gym or from the doctor reveals a lack of trust on the traditional brand claim.

4.6.                  View from experts

The marketing Expert (H) was questioned following the related questionnaire on appendix.

About the term superfood the Expert H claims, "There is no legal definition and of defining "superfood". According to the Expert the term "Superfood" would refers food, which is superior. Examples were presented like (broccoli or Blueberries). However the Expert pointed out that there is nothing new in this claim For example the cartoon in the early 30's was already promoting food with superior value. Nonetheless, the Expert H replied with a rhetorical question as "What is not "Superfood"?"

When asking about why do marketer use the term "Superfood"?

The Marketer expresses rational motivation. "Superfood" creates an added value but also in strategy it creates product differentiation and competitive advantage and consequently boosts sales.

About the perception from consumer about "Superfood", the expert claims first as a basic need to "survive" approach and refers to Maslow's hierarchical theory of need. Also, government or media remind people to care about themselves.

Moreover the Expert claims that people try to minimise the effort and maximise the gain. So taking as an example of consumer finds it easier to consumer who does not have the time to do exercise.

Nowadays claim sound confusing using the example of the eight Glass of water reported as dangerous same with multivitamins content. Also the Expert refers the recent example of the coffee that cost $100 a shot. The coffee beans are collected from the Jungle cat 'faeces (Civet cats) (CNN, 2008)


Questioned about the influence of "Superfood" on consumer, the Marketer agreed with such influence. However the expert enhances the awareness on the "Mask" effect as food industries invest massively in promoting their product in specialised successful magazines. In addition, Expert H relate the progress of "Unprocessed food

Finally asking about future claim or orientation of the food industry the Expert H exposes the return to the "Authentic" basic taste and smell among "Grand parent – approach". The marketer argues highlighting the increasing success of farmer market like in "Cardiff". Underpinning an enhanced concerned about organic food and regards to the balance diet after what the expert evoke as the "gym Generation"


4.7.                  Views from the involved consumer

The perception of "Superfood" has no real mean. Health eating is a built perception from family and local environment with no exogenous real influence from new marketing technique but more with word of mouth. For me date or olive oil is type of "Superfood", "Date is type of dry fruit fully enhanced in my religion". Even dry fruit are to be carefully taken due to the richness in sugar. These product with grenade and Figues are fully available fresh and healthy.

Controlled diet seems to have an influence on the purchase behaviour. However even from a farmer background and more influenced by word of mouth than advertising campaign the perception on food and influence on behaviour have changed in light of the incremental knowledge developed during seminaries program with expert. Therefore influence of the expert is an important factor even from some consumer however the consumer from phase two express the difficulties change strong belief built on certain food. As an example the consumer did not believe the expect warning about the excess consumption of olive oil. For instance belief built through generations and experiential behaviour found implicates a moderate echo of any warnings. Similarly with the eight glass of water strongly established as beneficial to health.














Chapter Five




"The media tend to present a sensationalised "good" or "bad" message about particular foods or food components that fuels the common psychological process of splitting. The same food can be castigated as bad one month as seen as a lifesaver in the next month. In reality no single food item is intrinsically health or unhealthy". Frewer et al (2003:722)



5.1.        Perception of food and value.

Cited in Gray et al 2003


Gray et al 2003 highlight a number of behaviour and concern when food consumption is involved. Some of the findings follow the health, convenient and pleasure concern from consumers. The Expert H (2008) agreed with the approach Gray et al (2003) when approaching the perception about Health, Pleasure and Convenience when exposing the quality of food .However, Expert H observes the growth of the cooking as hobby to a more "Authentic" approach which denies the growth of convenient aspiration for the future even if the "Superfood" express that convenient is time consumer for exercise and health purchase of fresh food. 

According the certain interviewees (2008), the rational and hedonistic approaches observe an interaction with financial constraint.

Urala and Lahteenmaki (2003) express that "The perceived value of a food product is based on the self-relevant that can be achieved by consuming that particular product" p148. Subsequently the finding from the interview (2008) raised the importance of what is self-relevant. What consumer perceived with food is the expression of valuing according to the expectation. To clarify, even if brand want to maximise profits (Kotler 1999), the individual value of food motivate the appropriate purchase behaviour. Heston Blumenthal (in  )on the other hand claims, "The Whole process of flavour perception is multi-sensory. We all have our own perception of life. Not only do we see, hear, and taste differently but we have our own, individual personal experiences emotion and memory".

According to phase one the consumer (2008) reflects the importance of the self-perception of the quality through all our senses to select each fruit and vegetable. However, dietarian education opened a view on some content that are suggested by the labelling (for example of juice 100%, no added sugar and so on…). In addition, Marshall et al (2007:234) claim "For nutrition labels to have the greatest impact, they must be in a format that is easily understood and used by consumer".

Furthermore Consumer V, T, C, Y and M (2008) revealed their concern about the risk and safety with food and especially with meat Consumer T expresses the preference nowadays to seafood and lamb due to the risk highlighted by Yeung and Morris (2001).

5.2.        Attitude Toward Food

Geyskens et al (2007) advocates the attitude toward food is driven by "health references" (p 120). To clarify references are built with culture, the food industry, and media…. Geyskens et al (2007:121) express that "low- fat cannot explain the increased consumption" underpinning the argument from Aylott and Mitchell (1999) expressing the environmental factors which affect the consumer's emotional states (Temperature, scent, noise), but also people as suggest Buy consumer S (2008) staff in supermarket may affect the purchase on food the example cited was about the meat purchase. The environment factor can affect the pleasure but also the approach or avoidance behaviour. The growth of organic food and concern expressed by Consumer S (2008) is a consequence of the food crisis Vindigni et al. 2002. Consumer S, T and V (2008) agreed with the argument from Marshall et al (2007) about the crucial influence on their behaviour of simplistic delivery of information.



5.3.        Perceptions on Superfood

Reporter on BBC News (2007) suggests, "Super Foods should be part of a balanced diet". The reporters state that the price is very high and sometime not quite appetising product. The excessive raised of price is agreed by Expert H (2008) in addition the Marketer exposed that  "Superfood" is perceived as an Added Value. However Expert H denounces that the majority of food can be presented as "Superfood".

There is no real definition they boost your health but "Superfood" can boost the health this cut out the precooking and it is about the need to spend time to cook our food (BBC 2007, Expert H, 2008). Mixtures of the normal diet with "Superfood" can be made. Lifestyle (Wier and Calverley 2002) and changing environment explain according to Grunert and Ramus (2005) and Heiskanen et al. (2007) consumer buy their food online.

BBC news (June 2007) express that "Superfood" have "High nutritional value"

As mentioned by Urala and Lahteenmaki (2003) taste and sensory of quality are the most frequently developed argument. Besides, healthiness and convenience are depending individual beliefs.


5.4.        Perception of Quality

One of the themes developed when researching is the quality. In Straete (2008) the conceptualizations of the quality has been provided and mirror the interviewees' perception of the quality in term of food. For example in expressing the location the consumer on phase two and phase one (Consumer T) exposed the action on going to the local market and places where the supply chain is reduced. In Fruit and vegetable markets the relationship with the local seller create an environment of trust and reduce at the same time the unknown chemical products added agreed by Botonaki et al (2006). The packaging has also been cited in order to perceive box. For example Consumer T exposed that the way brand invest on packaging and the way that way we can see the product (Ahmed et al. 2007) such as the rice is really important to judge about the quality accordingly with Silayoi and Speece (2004). Beside the Expert H (2008) expose future approach will have to consider the packaging.

Interviews reveals tendency from consumer to be attracted by organic food and their dedication to pay more (Post et al 2008 and Zanoli and Naspetti 2002).

The research provided different perspective from consumers and expert, the diversity of scope helped by the triangular methodology enhanced the perception of "Superfood". In addition, the concept of "Superfood" denounced by the regulation appears to be the testimony of meaning related to healthy food.


5.5.        Form phase one Consumer perception

It has been shown the influence mixed between the short-term perception and long term perception. However the Short term seems to take the lead.

In short term the author in this research refers to the emotional factor involved by the taste.

Beside the long term view is taking a more cognitive approach to food in the projection on expectations and aspirations. For example the belief on considering diet consciously in order to stay and be healthy. With the main idea is to live longer

The recurrent key factors that balance on the one side or the other is the influence of value. To clarify value in context of food has dichotomised consonance value on health or taste (Zanoli and Naspetti 2002) and (See Appendix on hierarchical map below) and consequently to the actual individual background and environmental factor.


5.6.        From phase two the interview with the expert

The outcome from these interviews is a formal definition of the "Superfood ".

However the first step considers two sides involved in such claim the marketer and the health expert an overview of what they perceive to their rational interpretation from consumer scope provide longitudinal scope. The Perception from the Expert H exposed rational approach initiated by basic need of "longevity". Therefore the exposure on such claim create a generation consuming "Superfood" to a certain extent far from complementary activities (Expert H, 2008 and Jebb and Krebs 2004)

The dietician is allocated to the health issue and the perception on the exploratory of the long-term scope. On the other hand the marketer acknowledges the rational behaviour perception and influence from both perspectives.

From the involved consumer the scope is continuous as the concern has health issue however even in this case short scope is not totally excluded. Indeed, value of the health concern is more expressed, the short term and pleasure of taste is always important even outpacing the diet. Anderson and Cox (2000) establish the real benefit of the "five a day" fruit and vegetable. However from how the perception have change the consumer to accept that also important are the diversity and the calorific property of certain fruit and vegetables Anderson and Cox sustain that " Social eating require careful consideration in health promotion planning "(p33). The consumer is over sixty years old and satisfies (Shankar 2007:62) expressing the "health-conscious baby boomer and the "self care" movement". Zanoli and Naspetti (2002:664) call Means-end chain (MEC) the "knowledge structure that links consumers' knowledge about product attributes with their personal knowledge about consequences and values".

The value and goals are viewed by Zanoli and Naspetti 2002:664

This concept Mean-End Chain presents the links coming out from the findings about the motivation and goals also with the individual perception risk and benefits.

Expert perception

Initiated by Knowledge and the need of unprocessed food and reduced supply in order to control pesticides Expert H enhance Consumer S and T expressing on their aspiration to pay more for healthy food. However the future concerns of the food industry Expert H predict to be taste issue also the nice dressing and exposure.

Expert H evokes the growth of the need for identity origin (meat or farm made cheese or milk) For example from a central point, an overview of Treforest area using reveals over thousand of places where to find food in local area including restaurant, stores and supermarket. However international food such as Chinese or Arabic observation seem to provide different collection of trusted product.


Debate knowledge and behaviour.



Secondary data

Ames and Gold 1999 (in Morris and Bates 1999) claim that on of the major cause of cancer is "Dietary imbalances, for example lack of dietary fruits and vegetables" (p19).

 Blueberries: Sales up 132% in the past two years was designated by one consumer Y. Also,Spinach: Sales up 31% since 2005 to a total of £42m in the past year same Salmon: Sales up 31% in two years to a £450m spend in the past year was especially expressed by Consumer S, C, T, Y and Consumer M.A. . For instance even consumer who did not answer to the definition question found it easy the reminding of food with health benefit seafood was the most commonly expressed . To clarify, effective belief operate from individual background to associate certain nutrient to health. According Expert H the Popey example about Spinach might motivate such answer. Green tea: Sales up 45% with more than £16m spent in the past two years , also with antioxidant property (See glossary on appendix) have been expressed by Consumer T and encourage such consumption same as the  Soy: Up 50% since 2005 to a spend of £70m in the past year (BBC News 2007)





In Summary of the method Phase one triangulated with secondary data and the Phase Two reveals that food relates the perception of value. It seems that Expert H and C reflect the influence of the original taste the reach of the authenticity. Therefore the perception of "Superfood mirrors the expression of certain influence. For example: consumers changes their  life styles and convenient perception it appears as a come back as opposed to the approach exposed by Gray et al.  (2003). In Addition the triangulate on phase two raises the attention on the influence about the concern about "Truth and lies " in such claim. In other words, "Superfood" reflect positive influence about healthy eating also distance and  growing concern about added  chemistry

















Chapter Six



"Everyone has a doctor in him or her; we just have to help it in its work. The natural healing force within each one of us is the greatest force in getting well. Our food should be our medicine. Our medicine should be our food. But to eat when you are sick is to feed your sickness" Hippocrates (460BC-377BC)



This research has pointed out the concern on health eating and the paradigm between the pleasure the convenient and heath aspiration. The perception of food have changed and reflect the changing lifestyles that consumer are exposed from. The effectiveness of using original method in combining triangulation of data collection and triangular in-depth interview has proven efficacy in raising the diversity of perception, values, motivations and commitments rational or emotional.

From the primary data and the appropriate literature the exploratory on "Superfood" perception reveals several influences on the purchase behaviour from a changing environment and behaviour. What is claimed to be "Superfood" by BBC 2007 is treated by the Academics as "functional Food". However Mintel (March 2008, b) establishes "Superfood" as "Naturally occurring nutritionally dens foods". And from the disparate belief on self-value of health eating, Shankar (2007:165) alarms that "efficacy of these food (functional food) must be assessed prior their labelling"

First the lifestyle BBC news (2007) highlighted that the changing behaviour such as the new structure of household or the busy life expose to the fast cooking or precooked food. Less time in the kitchen appear to be an issue and "Superfood" can be use to boos normal diet and supply body with useful nutrient in the heath tendency.

Secondly, the term Functional food is the most appropriate to define food with health benefit. However, claims "Superfood" appears to use the same approach to food even with no clear definition and banned from labelling. The Expert H (2008) asked, "What food is not "Superfood?"  Besides Childs and Poryzees (1997) identify "Neutraceutical" terms with no official definition as: "any substance that may be considered or part of a food and provides medical or health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease"p433. However Childs and Poryzees (1997) perceived that consumer have a better preference for "Nutritional food " terminology with 63% of the respondent rather than function food 8% and Neutraceutical or "Super foods" 3%. Moreover the same research enhances the cultural popularity of the term to be publicly used. Nowadays it seems that "Superfood "found an echo even stopped by the regulation. Robertfroid 2005 on the other hand, raises the attention on the term "Functional Food"

Thirdly even if the health claim is growing with the research and medicine on food property increase the knowledge on the long-term view. For example recent study on water discredited the strong mythic belief of the eight glass of water a day.

Health claim becomes an issue; marketer and health industry face the maximisation of profit the boost of sales on the on side and the health benefit and saving from health disease on the other side. On each extreme there is a risk from each other on crossing their respective domain of competencies. For example Dr Schultz providing health benefit on "Superfood "even not authorised by the regulation. Also Jordan's cereal brand forced to leave the "Superfood" claims.


Perception plays an important with the food consumption according to the previous Academics cited. The perception on brand influences the attitude on food. Furthermore, the lack of information and the repeating consumption consumer appears to comfort security on food through the loyalty to a particular trusted brand.

The growing labelling on package seems to be more confusing and instinctively consumer goes back to raw product when there is a lack of understanding.

Health eating and exploratory of consumer behaviour in health claim benefit is a growing concern of the literature and general research as example the Mintel report paper (March 2008,a) on functional food.

It must be acknowledge the benefits as the well-being are conditioned in surveyed diet. Nevertheless, "Superfood" can be use to add missing nutrient due to active lifestyle. However, despite these suppose unproven benefit from regulatory agencies Consumer appear to vale the quality of the consumed food. The decision-making follows the traditional process when dealing with new product. Nevertheless consumer minimise the risk on misinformation and keep links with emotional and memory from the childhood experience. As claimed by Greyskens et al (2007): "Health reference bias self perception". In other words, the consumer on phase two with controlled diet reveals changing perceptions on food after four days exposure of dietician lectures. Therefore motivation and "cultural experience" (Sibbel 2008:236) on ideal standard appears to be an influential factor

Heston Blumenthal states that As long as we have an individual differentiation of taste from emotion and memory continues, "The world of eating will be a very exciting place". The concept of Superfood mirror the evolving behaviour upon food the concern and the expectation although the evolutionary attitude motivated by the disease and changing environment-affecting farmers involve on survival and profitable production. Superfood reveals the changing behaviour of different actors however the discrimination against the non-labelled as "Superfood" can be a problem. Despite, Superfood subsequently raise the attention on the result from melting pot of discipline Marketing and Medicine

Dr Richard Schultz claims his discovery about "Superfood" referring more to a promotional claiming than a real health value according to the FDA regulation. Medication and marketer cannot use each other but instead may consider as beneficial the complementarities of the disciplines. Superfood reveals the lack in regulation but also an ethical attitude from some marketer, Brand or medicine to their personal financial well-being.The Expert H Exress that it would be beneficial "to undertake governmental claims".

Superfood is a complex concept that enlightens more than just the perception of food but also the consumer behaviour of the twenty first century. More health eating oriented and experienced. on the other hand marketer face regulation boundaries that will prevent from ethical discordance. Although, Medical research and development keep the discovery made more and more valuable. Research need time for testing before the claim of any benefit however recent discovery disclaim the eight glass of water promoted for year to keep the body healthy. Belief and meanings play a large role on establishing individuals' perception of truth.

Such claims are dangerous as the consumer may relate benefit to a product excluded from the context of a diet program. Consequently the product itself is only applicable to boost sales (Enos 2007, in BBC News 2007).









Chapter Seven


Further research



"Every act of will is an act of self-limitation. To desire action is to desire limitation. In that sense, every act is an act of self-sacrifice. When you choose anything, you reject everything else" Chesterton,G.K. (1874-1936)





          I.     Limitation

Several limitation have been exposed from this research

1.    Firstly is the Limitation from the methodology

Subsequently the size of the sample due to cost and timeliness issue reveals,

And from the size the interview on "Superfood" reveals some controversy.

For instance, the interviewees who did not understand the meaning or though to definition have found difficulties on listing product belonging to "superfood".

Therefore it has been initiated from the authors to drive to list food that they believe to "provide health benefits".

2.    Limitation from the timing

Banned from labelling "Superfood" in 2007 relate that, no more in supermarket, this research appeal to the memory on previous purchase about "Superfood". In other words the regulation has changed the environment.

Moreover, an extensive survey from an ethnographical perspective for example would have debated the approach on "Neutraceutical" food from Childs and Poryzees (1997).






       II.     Further Research

Further research on the perception between hand made and farm made, the product identity identified by consumer rice from India or China is more credible than from other places. The product of origin is a growing concern to some extent as the lack of trust on marketer and brands have been exposed.

Also when dealing with food and the health claim benefit that would be relevant in some continent such as Africa and what real expectation and benefit consumer would perceive from the expansion of healthy eating. Despite the continuous growth about health eating further research might be relevant and functional food raise the evidence on such improvement of technology and medicines.












  1. Aarset, B., Beckmann, S., Bigne, E., Beveridge, M., Bjorndal, T., Bunting, J. McDonagh, P., Mariojouls, C., Muir, J., Prothero, A., Reisch, L., Smith, A., Tveteras, R. and Young, J. (2004) " The European consumers' understanding and perception of the "organic" food regime the case of aquaculture" British Food Journal Vol. 106 No. 2 pp 93-105.
  2. Abela, A.V. (2006), "Marketing and consumption: a response to O'Shaughnessy and O'Shaughnessy", European journal of marketing, Vol 40 Nos 1/2npp5-16.
  3. Addis, M. and  Podesta, S. "Long life to marketing research a postmodern view " European Journal of Marketing Vol. 39. No. ¾ pp 386-412.
  4. Aikman, S. N., Min, K. E. and Graham, D. (2006) "Food attitudes, eating behaviour, and the information underlying food attitudes" Appetite Vol. 47 pp 111-114.
  5. Ajzen, I. and Fishbein, M. (1980) "Understanding Attitudes and Predicting social behavior" Prentice-hall.
  6. Allan, G. (2003), "A critique of using grounded theory as a research method", Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, Vol. 2 No. 1, pp. 1-10.
  7. Andrews,R. L. and Currim, I. S. (2002) "identifying segments with identical choice behaviours across product categories: An Intercategory Logit Mixture model" International Journal of Research in Marketing Vol. 19 pp 65-79.
  8. Aylott, R. and Mitchell, V. -W. (1999) "An exploratory study of grocery shopping stressors" British Food Journal Vol. 101 No. 9 pp 683-700.
  9. Babin, B. J., Darden, W. R. and Griffin, M. (1994) " Work and/or Fun: Measuring Hedonic utilitarian shopping Value" Journal of Consumer Research Val. 20 March. Pp644-656.
  10. Baltas, G. (2001) "Nutrition labelling: issues and policies" European Journal of Marketing Vol. 35 No. 5/6 pp 708-721.
  11. Barnes, J.G. (2003) "Establishing meaningful customer relationships: why some companies and brands mean more to their customers" Managing Service Quality Vol. 13 Number 3 pp 178-186.
  12. Berns, G. S. (2005) "Price, Placebo, and the Brain" Journal of Marketing Research Vol. XLII November pp 399-400.
  13. Bhat, S. and Reddy, S. K. (1998) "Symbolic and functional positioning of brands" Journal of Consumer Marketing Vol. 15 No. 1 pp 32-43.
  14. Blake, C. (2007) "Individual differences in the conceptualization of food across eating contexts" Food Quality and Preference Vol. 19 pp62-70.
  15. Blythe J (2006) Principles & Practice of marketing 1st ed. Thompson learning Financial times Prentice hall
  16. Brown, S. L. and Brown, R. M. (2006) "Selective Investment theory: Recasting the Functional Significance of Close Relationships" Psychological Inquiry Vol. 17 No. 1 pp 1-29. 
  17. Brown,S. (1993) "Postmodern marketing?" European journal of marketing vol27 No4 pp19-34.
  18. Carù, A. and Cova, B. (2003), "Revisiting consumption experience: a more humble but complete view of the concept", Marketing Theory, Vol. 3 No.2, pp.259-78.
  19. Childs, N. M. and Poryzees, G. H. (1997) "Foods that help prevent disease: consumer attitudes and public policy implications" Journal of Consumer Marketing Vol. 14 No. 6 pp 433-447.
  20. Christensen, L. and Brooks, A. (2006) "Changing Food Preference as a Function of Mood" The Journal of Psychology Vol. 140 No. 4 pp 293-306.
  21. Christensen. L T, Torp. S and Firat. A F, (2005), "Integrated marketing communication and postmodernity: an odd couple?", Corporate Communications: An International Journal, Vol. 10 No. 2, pp. 156-167
  22. Cornwell,T. B., Weeks, C. S. and Roy, D. P. (2005) " Sponsorship-linked Marketing: Opening The Black Box" Journal of Advertising Vol. 34 No. 2 Summer pp 21-42.
  23. Daborn, C., Dibsall, L. and Lambert, N. (2005) " Understanding the food related experiences and beliefs of a specific group of low-income men in the UK" Health Education Vol. 105 No. 2 pp 109-125.
  24. Dahlman, F., Brammer, S. and Millington, A. (2008) "Environmental management in the United Kingdom: new survey evidence" Management Decision Vol. 46 No.2. pp 264-283.
  25. Davies, M.A.P. and Wright, L.T. (1994) "The Importance of labelling Examined in Food Marketing" European Journal of Marketing Vol.20 No.2 pp 57-67.
  26. De Chernatony, L. (2001) « From Brand vision to Brand evaluation Strategically Building and Sustaining Brands » the chartered institute of marketing Butterworth Heinemann.
  27. De Chernatony, L. and Segal-Horn, S. (2003) "The criteria for successful services brands" European Journal of Marketing Vol. 37 No. 7/8 pp 1095-1118.
  28. De Jong, J., Frewer, L., Van Trijp, H. Renes, R.J., De Wit, W.  and Timmers, J. (2004) " Monitoring consumer confidence in food safety: an exploratory study" British Food Journal Vol. 106 No. 10/11 pp 837-849.
  29. Demirdjian, Z. S. and Senguder, T. (2004) " Perspectives in Consumer Behavior: Paradigm Shifts in Prospect" The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge March pp 348-353
  30. Dubois, B. (2000) "Understanding the consumer – A European perspective" Journal of Consumer Behaviour Harlow Essex prentice-hall
  31. Elliott, R. 1997, "Existential consumption and irrational desire", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 31, No. 3/4, pp. 285-296.
  32. Essoussi, L. H. and Zahaf, M. (2008) "Decision making process of community organic food consumers: an exploratory study" Journal of Consumer Marketing Vol. 25 No.2 pp 95-104.
  33. Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and Lowe, A. (2002), Management Research, Sage,London.
  34. Fennis, B. M., Pruyn, A. T. H. and Maasland, M. (2005) "Revisiting the Malleable self: Brand Effects on consumer Self-Perceptions of Personality Traits" Advances in Consumer Research Vol. 32 pp 371-377.
  35. Firat, A. F. ; Dholakia, N. and Venkatesh, A. (1995) « Marketing in a postmodern world » European Journal of Marketing Vol. 29 No. 1 pp 40-56
  36. Firat, A.F. and Venkatesh, A. (1995), "Liberatory postmodernism and the reenchantment of consumption", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 22, December, pp. 239-67.
  37. Fishbein,M. and Ajzen, I. (1975) "Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behaviour: An introduction to Theory and Research Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
  38. Foucault M. (1986) "The care of the self; the history of sexuality volume three" Penguin history social science.
  39. Foxall, G.; Goldsmith, R. E. and Brown, S. (2002) "Consumer Psychology for Marketing" Thomson-Learning 2nd Edition.
  40. Franks, J. (2003) "Current issues in marketing organic milk in the UK" British Food Journal Vol. 105 No. 6 pp 350-363
  41. Frewer, L., Scholderer, J. and Lambert, N. (2003) "Consumer acceptance of functional foods: issues for the future" British Food Journal Vol. 105 No. 10 pp 714-731.
  42. Frewer, L. J., Miles, S. and Marsh, R. (2002) " The media and Genetically Modified Foods: Evidence in Support of Social Amplification of Risk" Risk Analysis Vol. 22 No. 4 pp 701-711.
  43. Frewer, L.J., Shepherd, R. and Sparks, P.  (1994) "Biothechnology and food production: knowledge and perceived risk", British Food Journal, Vol. 96 No. 9 pp 26-32.
  44. Garber, L. Jr, Hayatt, E. M. and Starr, R. G.  (2000) "The Effects of food Color on Pervceived Flavor" Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice Fall Vol.8 pp 59-72.
  45. Geyskens, K., Pandelaere, M., Dewitte, S. and Warlop, L. (2007) "The Backdoor to over consumption: The Effect of Associating "Low-Fat" Food with health References" American Marketing Association Spring Vol.26 No.1 pp 118-125.
  46. Goldsmith, R. E., Freiden, J. and Henderson, K. V. (1997) "The impact of social values on food-related attitudes" British Food Journal Vol.99 No.9 pp 352-357.
  47. Goulding, C. (1998) "Grounded theory: the missing methodology on the interpretivist agenda" Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal Vol 1 No 1 pp 50-57.
  48. Goulding, C. (1999) "Consumer research, interpretive paradigms and methodological ambiguities" European Journal of Marketing Vol.33 No. 9/10 pp 859-873.
  49. Goulding, C. (2000) "The commodification of the past, postmodern pastiche, and the search for authentic experiences at contemporary heritage attractions" European Journal of Marketing Vol.34 No.7 pp 835-853.
  50. Goulding, C. (2003) "Issues in representing the postmodern consumer" Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal. Vol. 6 No3 pp 152-159.
  51. Goulding, C. (2005) "Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology a comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research". European Journal of Marketing Vol. 39 No. ¾. Pp 294 -308
  52. Grankvist, G., Lekedal, H. and Marmendal, M. (2007) "Values and Eco-and fair-trade labelled products" British Food Journal Vol. 109 No.2 pp 169- 181.
  53. Grunert,K. and G. Ramus, K. (2005) "Consumers" willingness to buy food through the internet" British Food Journal Vol. 107 No. 6 pp 381-403.
  54. Guise, J., L. (2005) "Toward a template for systematic reference and instruction programme analysis" Vol. 106 No. 1208/1209 pp 29-42.
  55. Guy, C.M. and David, G. (2004) "Measuring physical access to 'healthy foods' in areas of social deprivation: a case study in Cardiff" International Journal of Consumer Studies Vol. 28 No. 3 June pp 222-234.
  56. Haider, J. and Bawden, D. (2007) "Conceptions of "information poverty in LIS: a discourse analysis" Journal of documentation Vol. 63 No. 4 pp 534-557.
  57. Hansen, T. (2005) "Understanding consumer perception of food quality: the cases of Shrimps and Cheese" British Food Journal Vol. 107 No. 7 pp 500-525.
  58. Harper, G. C. and Makatouni, A. (2002) "Consumer perception of organic food production and farm animal welfare" British food Journal Vol. 104 No. 3/4/5. Pp287-299.
  59. Heiskanen, E., Hyvonen, K., Niva, M., Pantzar, M.,Timonen, P. and Vajonen, J. (2007) "User involvement in radical innovation: are consumers conservative? European Journal of Innovation Management Vol. 10 No. 4 pp 489-509
  60. Henry, P. (2002) "Systematic variation in purchase orientations across social classes" Journal of Consumer Marketing Vol. 19 No. 5  pp 424-438.
  61. Herne, S. (1995) "Research on food choice and nutritional status in elderly people: a review" British Food Journal Vol. 97 No. 9 pp 12-29.
  62. Hirschman, E. C. and Holbrook, M. B. (1982) " Hedonic consumption: Emerging Concepts Methods and Propositions" Journal of Marketing Summer Vol. 46 pp 92-101.
  63. Hollywood, L. E., Amstrong, G. A. and Durkin, M. G. (2007) "Using behavioural and motivational thinking in food segmentation" International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management Vol. 35 No, 9 pp 691-702.
  64. Houghton, J. R., Van Kleef, E. Rowe, G. and Frewer, L.J. (2006) " Consumer perception of the effectiveness of food risk management practices: A cross- cultural study" Health, Risk and Society June Vol. 8 No. 2 pp 165-183
  65. Hurling, R. and Shepherd, R. (2003) "Eating with your eyes: effect of appearance on expectations of liking" Appetite vol. 41 pp 167-174.
  66. Ilbery, B., Watts, D., Simpson, S., Gilg, A. and Little, J. (2006), "Mapping local foods: evidence from two English regions", British Food Journal, Vol. 108 No.3, pp.213-25.
  67. Imram, N. (1999) "The role of visual cues in consumer perception and acceptance of a food product" Nutrition& Food Science Number 5 September/October pp 224-228.
  68. Irmak,G. Block,L. and G. Fitzsimons,G.J. (2005) " The Placebo Effect in Marketing: Sometimes you just have to want it to work"Journal of Marketing Research, Vol XLII November p 406-409.
  69. Jack, E.P. and Raturi, A. S. (2006) "Lessons learned from methodological triangulation in management research" Management Research News Vol.29 No. 6 pp 345-357.
  70. Jamal, A., Goode, M. M. H. (2001) "Consumers and brands: a study of the impact of self-image congruence on brand preference and satisfaction" Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol. 19 No. 7 pp 482-492.
  71. Jayanti, R.K. and Burns, A.C. (1998) "The antecedents of preventive healthy care behavior: an empirical. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science Vol. 26 No. 1 pp 6-15.
  72. Jebb, S.A. and Krebs, J. (2004) "lifestyles determinants of obesity" Obesity & Diabetes Barnett, A.H. and Kumar, S. John Wiley &sons ltd pp 33-44.
  73. Johnson, M.S., Garbarino, E. and Sivadas, E. (2006) "Influence of customer differences of loyalty, perceived risk and category experience on customer satisfaction" International Journal of Market Research Vol. 48 issue 5 pp 601- 622.
  74. Johnson, P.; Buehring, A.; Cassell, C. and Symon, G. (2007) "Defining qualitative management research: an empirical investigation" Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management an international Journal Vol.2 No.1 pp 23-42.
  75. Jones, P., Comfort, D. and Hillier, D. (2006) "Healthy eating and the UK's major food retailers: a case study in corporate social responsibility" British Food Journal Vol. 108 No. 10 pp 838-848.
  76.  Jover, A.J.V., Fuentes, F.J.L.M. and Fuentes, M.M.F. (2004) "Measuring perceptions of quality in food products: the case of red wine" Appetite
  77. Kihlberg, I., Johansson, L., Langsrud, O. and Risvik, E. (2005), "Effects of information on liking of bread", Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 16, pp. 25-35.
  78. King, D. B., Wertheimer, M., Keller, H. and Crochetiere, K. (1994) "The Legacy of Max Wertheimer and Gestalt psychology" Social Research, Vol. 61, No. 4 winter pp. 907-935.
  79. Kirsch, I. (2004) "Conditioning, Expectancy, and the Placebo Effect: Comment on Stewart-Williams and Podd (2004)" Psychological Bulletin Vol. 130 No. 2 pp 341-343.
  80. Kitchen. P.J, 1994, "The Marketing Communications Revolution – A Leviathan Unveiled?",  Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 19-25
  81. Knowles. T.; Moody, R. and McEachern, M. G. (2007) "European food scares and their impact on EU food policy" British food journal Vol. 109 No. 1 pp 43-67.
  82. Kotler, P. (2003) "Marketing Insights from A to Z, 80 concepts every manager needs to know". Hoboken, NJ : J. Wiley & Sons
  83. Kotler, P. and Keller, K L. (2006). "Marketing management". Twelfth Edition. Pearson Education, Prentice Hall
  84. Krondl, M. and Lau, D., "Food habit modification as a public health measure", Canadian Journal of Public Health, Vol. 69, 1978, pp. 39-43.
  85. Krystallis, A. and Chryssohoidis, G. (2005) "consumers' willingness to pay for organic food Factors that affect it and variation per organic product type" British Food Journal Vol. 107 No. 5 pp 320-343.
  86. Landstrom, E., Sidenvall, B., Hursti, K. U. –K. and Mangnusson, M. (2006) "Health-care professionals' perceived trust in and willingness to recommend functional food: A qualitative study" Appetite Vol. 48 pp 241-247.
  87. Leikas, S., Lindeman, M., Roininen, K. and Lähteenmäki, L. (2006) " Food risk perceptions, gender, and individual differences in avoidance and approach motivation, intuitive and analytic thinking styles, and anxiety" Appetite Vol. 48 pp 232-240.
  88. Leo, C., Bennett, R. and Härtel, C.E.J (2005) "Cross-cultural Differences in Consumer Decision Making Styles" Cross Cultural Management Vol. 12 No. 3 pp 32-62.
  89. Levin, I. P. and Gaeth, J. (1988) "How Consumer are Affected by framing of Attribute Information Before and After Consuming the Product" Journal of Consumer Research. Vol. 15 December pp 374- 378.
  90. Llewellyn, S. and Northcott, D. (2007) "The "singular view" in management case studies" Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management an International Journal Vol. 2 No.3 pp 194-207.
  91. Lowenstein, G. F., Waber, E.U., Hsee, C. K. and Welch, N. (2001) "Risk as feelings." Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 127 No. 2, pp 267-286. 
  92. Lye, A., Shao, W., Rundle-Thiele, S. and Frausnaugh, C. (2005) "Decision waves: consumer decisions in today's complex world" European Journal of Marketing Vol. 39 No ½ pp. 216-230
  93. Lyons, E. and Coyle, A. (2007) "Analysing qualitative data in psychology" Sage publication, British library.
  94. Malani, A. (2006) "identifying Placebo Effects with Data from clinical Trials" Journal of Political Economy Vol. 114 No. 2 pp 236-256.
  95. Manser (2002).
  96. Marshall, S. and Bower, J.A., Schroder, M.J.A. (2007) "Consumer understanding of UK salt intake advice" British food Journal Vol.109 No.3 pp 233-245.
  97. Miles, S., Ritson, C. and Frewer, L.J. (2004) "Public worry about specific food safety issues" British Food Journal Vol.106 No. 1 pp 9-22.
  98. Mitchell, V.-W (1999) "Consumer perceived risk conceptualisations and models" European Journal of Marketing Vol. 33 No ½ pp 163-195.
  99. National Consumer Council, (1996) "Green Claims a consumer investigation into marketing claims about the environment" National Consumer Council.
  100. Ndubisi, N.O. Customer behaviour Responses to Sales Promotion The Role of Fear of Losing Face" Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics Vol.17 Number 1 pp 32-49.
  101. O'Cass, A. and Frost, H. (2002) "Status brands: Examining the effects of non-product-related brand associations on status and conspicuous consumption". Journal of product &Brand management Vol. 11 No 2 pp67-88.
  102. O'Shaughnessy, J. and O'Shaughnessy, N.J. (2002) "Marketing, the consumer society and hedonism". European journal of marketing Vol. 36 issue: 5/6; 2002 General review.
  103. O'Shaughnessy, J. and O'Shaughnessy, N.J. (2007) "Reply to criticisms of marketing, the consumer society and hedonism". European journal of marketing Vol. 41 No1/2 pp7-16.
  104. O'Cass, A. and McEwen, H (2004)"Exploring consumer status and conspicuous consumption" Journal of Consumer Behaviour, Volume: 4 Number: 1 Page: 25 – 39 Henry Stewart Publications.
  105. Onkvisit, S and Shaw, J. (1987), "Self-concept and image congruence: some research and managerial implications", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 4 pp.13-23.
  106. Onyango, B.M., Hallman, W.K. and Bellows, A.C. (2007) "Purchase organic food in US food systems" British Food Journal Vol.109 No. 5 pp 399-411.
  107. Oygard, L. (2000) "Studying food tastes among young adults using Bourdieu's theory" Journal of Consumer Studies & Home Economics Vol. 24 No.3 September pp 160-169.
  108. Parmenter, K. (2002) "Changes in nutrition knowledge and dietary behaviour" Health Education Vol.102 No. 1 pp 23-29.
  109. Parry, J. (2003) " Making sense of executive sensemaking a phenomenological case study with methodological criticism" Journal of Health organization and management Vol. 17 No. 4 pp 240-263.
  110. Patterson, M. and O'Malley, L. (2006) "Brands, Consumers and Relationships :a Review" Irish Marketing Review Vol. 18 Number 1&2 .
  111. Patterson, M. (1998), "Direct marketing in post-modernity: neo-tribes and direct communications", Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol.16, No1, pp 68-74.
  112. Peter-Texeira, A. and Badrie, N. (2005) " Consumers' perception of food packaging in Trinidad Indies and its related impact on food choices" International Journal of Consumer Studies Vol. 29 No.6 November pp 508-514.
  113. Phau, I. and Lo, C.-C. (2004)"Profiling fashion innovators A study of self-concept, impulsive buying and Internet purchase intent" Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management Vol. 8 No. 4 pp 399-411.
  114. Pojman L.P. (2006) "Who are we? Theories of human nature" Oxford university press.
  115. Post, A. , Shanahan, H. and Jonsson, L. (2008) " Food processing: barriers to, or opportunities for, organic foods in the catering sector?" British Food Journal Vol. 110 No.2 pp 160-173.
  116. Proctor, T. and Kitchen P. (2002) "communication in postmodern integrated marketing" Corporate communication: an international journal Vol. 7 No3 pp 144-154.
  117. Rice-Evans, C. and Miller, N.J. (1995) "Antioxidants - the case for fruit and vegetables in the diet" British Food Journal Vol. 97 No. 9 pp 35-40.
  118. Riley, M. (1994) "Marketing Eating out: The influence of Social, Culture and innovation" British Food Journal Vol.96 No. 10 pp 15-18.
  119. Riley, M, Wood, R.C. and Clark, M.A. , Wilkie, E. and Szivas,E. (2001) Researching and Writing Dissertations in Business and Management. Thomson Learning. Mitcham, Surrey, England.
  120. Roberfroid, M.B. (2005) "Inulin-type fructans [electronic resources]: functional food ingredients" Modern nutrition Boca raton, FL CRC Press.
  121. Rook, D.W. (1987) "The buying impulsive", Journal of consumer research Vol. 14 issue 2 pp189-199.
  122. Rook, D.W. and Fisher, R.J. (1995), "Normative influence on impulsive buying behaviour", Journal of consumer research Vol. 22 Issue 3 pp 305-313.
  123. Rothschild, M. L. (1999) "Carrots, Sticks, and Promises: A conceptual Framework for Management of Public Health ad Social issue Behaviours" Journal of Marketing Vol. 63 October pp 24-37.
  124. Rottenstreich, Y. and Hsee, C.K. (2001) "Money, Kisses, and electric shocks: on the affective psychology of risk. Psychological science Vol. 12 pp 119-135.
  125. Sankar, S. (2007) "Functional foods as self-care and complementary medicine" Nutrition & Food Science Vol. 37 No. 3 pp 160-167.
  126. Saporito, B. (1986) "Has-been brands go back to work" Fortune April Vol. 28 pp 123-124.
  127. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2007) "Research Methods For Business Students" Fourth Edition FT Prentice Hall
  128. Scarpi, D. (2005) "Hedonic and Utilitarian Behaviour in Specialty shops" The Marketing Review Vol 5 pp 31-44.
  129. Scott, B.  (2006) "Reflexivity revisited: the sociocybernetics of belief, meaning, truth and power" kybernetes Vol. 35 No. ¾ pp 308- 316.
  130. Selden, L. (2005), "On grounded theory – with some malice", Journal of Documentation, Vol. 61 No. 1, pp. 114-29.
  131. Shankar, A., Cherrier H. and Canniford R. (2006); "Consumer empowerment: a Foucauldian interpretation" European journal of marketing vol.40 N 9/10 pp 1013-1030.
  132. Sharp, M., Hess, A. B. and Ranes, B. (2007) "Mindless Decision Making and Environmental Issues: gestalt/ Feature-Intensive Processing and Contextual Reasoning in Environmental Decisions" The Journal of Psychology vol 141 No. 5 pp 525-537.
  133. Shepherd, G. J. and O'Keefe, D. (1984) " Separability of attitudinal and normative influence on behavioural intentions in the Fishbein-Ajzen Model. The journal of social Psychology, vol. 122 pp287-288.
  134. Shine, A.; O'Reilly, S. and O'Sullivan, K. (1997) "consumer attitudes to nutrition labelling" British food journal Vol.99 No. 8. Pp 283-289.(a)
  135. Shine, A.; O'Reilly, S. and O'Sullivan, K. (1997) "consumer use of nutrition labels" British food journal Vol.99 No. 8. Pp 290-296.(b)
  136. Shiu, E.C.C., Dawson, J.A. and Marshall, D.W. (2004) "Segmentating the convenience and health trends in British food market"British Food Journal Vol. 106 No. 2 pp 106-127
  137. Shiv, B., Carmon, Z., Ariely, D. (2005) "Placebo Effects of Marketing Actions: Consumers May Get What They Pay for" Journal of Marketing Research Vol. XLII November 2005 pp 383-393.
  138. Sibbel, A. (2008) "Dietary fibre in human nutrition: the problem of providing nutrition advice" British Food Journal Vol. 110 No. 2 pp 236-248.
  139. Silayoi, P. and Speece, M. (2004) "Packaging and purchase decisions An exploratory study on the impact of involvement level and time pressure" British Food Journal Vol. 106 No8 pp 607-628.
  140. Sirgy J.M. (1982) "Self-concept in consumer behaviour: a Critical Review". Journal of consumer research Vol. 9 December
  141.  Skinner. H. and Stephens. P, 2003, "Speaking the Same Language: Exploring the relevance of Neuro-Linguistic Programming to Marketing Communications", Journal of Marketing Communications, Issue 9, pp 177-192
  142. Slovic, P., Finucane, M. L., Peters, E., MacGregor, D.G. (2004) "Risk as analysis and risk as feelings some thoughts about affect, reason, risk and rationality" Risk Analysis Vol. 24 pp 311-322.
  143. Straete, E.P. (2008) "Modes of qualities in a development of speciality food" British Food Journal Vol 110 No.1 pp 62-75.
  144. Thakor, M. V. and Kohli, C. S. (1997) "Brand origin: conceptualization and review" Journal of consumer Marketing, Vol. 13 No. 3 pp 27-42.
  145. The Chambers Dictionary (2005) "The Chambers Dictionary" 10th
  146.  Townsend, E. (2006) "Affective Influence on Risk Perceptions of , and Attitudes Toward, Genetically Modified Food" Journal of Risk research Vol. 9 No. 2 March pp 125-139
  147. Townsend, E., Clarke, D.D. and Travis, B. (2004) "Effects of Context and Feelings on Perceptions of Genetically Modified Food" Risk Analysis Vol. 24 No.5.
  148. Tsai, S-P.  (2006) "Investigating archetype-icon transformation in brand marketing" Marketing Intelligence & Planning Vol. 24 No. 6 pp 648-663.
  149. Turner, A. (1995) "Prepacked food labelling: Past, Present and Future" British Food Journal Vol. 97 No. 5 pp 23-31.
  150. Vase, L., Robinson, M.E., Verne,G. N.and Price, D. D. et al. (2003) "The contributions of suggestion, desire and expectation to placebo effects in irritable bowel syndrome patients An empirical investigation" Vol. 105 No. 1 pp 17-25.
  151. Verdurme, A. and Viaene, J. (2003) "Exploring and modelling consumer attitudes towards genetically modified food" Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal Vol.6 Number 2 pp 95-110.
  152. Verdurme, A., Gellynck, X., Viaene, J. (2002) " Are organic food consumers opposed to GM food consumers?" British Food Journal Vol. 104 No. 8 pp 610- 623.
  153. Vindini, G., Janssen, M.A., Jager, W. (2002) " Organic food consumption a multitheoretical framwork of consumer decision making" British Food Journal Vol. 104 No.8 pp 624-642.
  154. Walsh, G., Mitchell, V. –W., (2005) "Demographic characteristics of consumers who find it difficult to decide" Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 23 No 3 pp 281-295.
  155. Warnaby,G. (2008) "Maps and the representation of urban shopping destination" International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management Vol. 36 No. 3 pp224-234.
  156. Watson, L. Spence, M.T. (2007) "Causes and consequences of emotions on consumer behaviour a review and integrative cognitive appraisal theory" European Journal of Marketing Vol.41 No. 5/6 pp 487-511.
  157. Weber E.U, Blais A R Betz N.E. (2002) "A domain-specific risk attitude scale: measuring risk perceptions and risk behaviours", journal of behavioural decision-making Vol. 15 pp 263-290.
  158. Webster, J.E. (1992) "The changing role of Marketing in the corporation » Journal of Marketing Vol. 56 October.
  159. Whitelock, J. Fastoso, F. (2007) "Understanding international branding: defining the domain and reviewing the literature" International Marketing Review Vol. 24 No. 3 pp 252-270.
  160. Wier, M., Calverley, C. (2002) "Market potential for organic foods in Europe" British Food Journal Vol. 104 No. 1 pp 45-62.
  161. Wilson, H., N. (2004) "Towards rigour in action research: a case study in marketing planning" European Journal of Marketing Vol. 38 No ¾ pp 378-400.
  162. Yeung, R.M.W., Morris, J. (2001) "Consumer perception of food risk in chicken meat" Nutrition& FoodScience Vol. 31 Number 6 pp 270-278.
  163. Zanoli, R., Naspetti, S. (2002) « consumer motivation in the purchase of organic food A means-end approach » British Food Journal Vol. 104 No. 8 pp 643-653.
  164. Zikmund W.G., Babin Barry J., (2007), Exploring Marketing Research 9th edition. Thomson South-western







Web sites:

EADS (2006) "EADS unveils NetCOS advanced simulation and modelling facility in UK" [online]

[Available from: ] [ Accessed on April 17th 2008].

Micheloud & Cie (2007) "Suiss chocolate" [online]

[Available from: ] [Accessed on April 17th 2008]

Marks and Spenser (2007) "Marks and Spenser food advert" [online]

[Available from: ] [Accessed on April 17th 2008].

Tracing the origin of food (2008) "Food traceability"

[Available from:]  [Accessed on April 17th 2008].

Tracing the origin of food (nd) "Trace food: Good Traceability Practice guides"

[Available from:]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008].

European Food Safety Authority (2006) "conference on combating obesity" Speech Geslain-Laneelle,C. [Available From:,0.pdf ] [Accessed on April 17th 2008].

DEFRA (Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs" (March 2008) "Farming" [Available from:] [Accessed on April 17th 2008].

Just-Food (July 2007) "EU health claims legislation gets mixed response"

[Available from:] Haworth, D. [Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 

Just-Food (May 2007) "UK: Oat Bakes offer a healthy alternative to crisps"

[Available from: ]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 

Just-Food (February 2007) "Goji berries face possible ban, FSA says"

[Available from: ]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 

Just-Food (August 2004) "Just how super are "superfoods"?" Westbrook,H.

[Available from: ]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 

U.S Food and Drug Administration (2007) "National Food Safety Programs"

[Available from: ] [Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 

Food Standards Agency Australia New Zealand (1994) "Food Standards Agency Australia New Zealand regulation 1994" [Available from:$file/FoodStandAusNZ1994.pdf]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 


French Food Safety Agency [available from :]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008].

Food Standards Agency (June 29th 2007)  " Putting the "super" into "superfoods"".

[Available from:]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 

Office of Public Sector Information (1998) « Data Protection Act 1998 »

[Available from:]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 

The fat duck  (nd) « Blumenthal, H- philosophy »

[Available From: ] [Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 

The Market Research Society (MRS) (2005) "Code of conduct"

[Available from:]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 

 Social Research Association « Data Protection Act 1998 : Guidelines for Social Research »

[Available from:]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 

LVMH (2008) « LVMH Worldwide Wines and Spirits »

[Available from: ]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008]. 


CBS News, Drum, K. (April 3rd 2008) « 8X8 » [Available from:] [Accessed on April 17th 2008].


European Food Safety Authority (2008) "EFSA"

[Available from :] [Accessed on April 17th 2008].

CNN (2008) "$100 a Shot for cat dung coffee"

[Available from: ]

[Accessed on April 18th 2008]

Upmystreet (2008) "FindMynearest Food and Drink" upmystreet.

[Available from:]

[Accessed on April 18th 2008]

Japan National Tourist Organization (2007) "Have a marvellous Dinner in Tokyo" Vol. 69 August.

[Available from: ]

[Accessed on February 18th 2008]

Keynote (May 2007) "Breakfast Cereals"

[Available from: ]

[Accessed on February 18th 2008]

Keynote (April 2006) "Fruit&Vegetables"

[Available from: ]

[Accessed on February 18th 2008]

Keynote (February 2008) "Nutraceuticals"

[Available from: ]

[Accessed on march 21st 2008]


Keynote (January 2008) "Functional Food"

[Available from: ]

[Accessed on march 21st 2008]



Mintel (March 2008,a) "Functional foods"

[Available from: ]

[Accessed on April 17th 2008]



Mintel (March 2008,b) "Natural or Functional food?"

[Available from: ]






Questionnaire: Semi-structured phase one

To consumers

This questionnaire is designed to collect the perception of consumers on foods. And what influence our decision on a particular product.

Qualifying questions


1.    Age: 18+

2.    Thinking of your own house hold ….Do you select your food?


Food shopping experience

3.    Thinking of your supermarket shopping experience what are the factors that motivate your selection of foods.  In terms of

1 Brand –

2 Packaging –

3 Pricing –

4 Promotions –

What other factors do you think influence your supermarket shopping?

Perception on Food

4.    Why would you consider what food you put into your body?  How may this affect your purchases?


5.    When deciding on food would you consider yourself to be a rationale or emotional consumer why? –


Influence on decision-making

6.    How may the dietary information provided by manufacturers of foods influence your purchase decision? How do you collect this information?

7.    Which communication media are most influential your foods choice?


"Superfood" labelling claim

8.    How would you define the term "Superfood"?

9.    Can you list me any products you would consider to be a "Superfood"

10.Which "Superfood" product have you consumed? –Why?


Thank you Very much for your attention and participation.


Phase Two Interview with Expert

And Consumer in controlled diet:

To consumer Expert Marketer


1.    How would you define "Superfood"?


2.    Why do marketers use the term "Superfood"?



3.    In your opinion why would a consumer purchase or consume "Superfood" products?


4.    What is your personal perspective of the media coverage of items that you identify as "Superfood"?



5.    Do you think "Superfood" can influence purchase behaviour? How and Why?


6.    In your opinion such claim will come up again? Who initiate such claim?






To Dietician

1.    How would you define "Superfood"?


2.    What is your personal perspective of the media coverage of items that you identify as "Superfood"?



3.    In your opinion what are the beneficial health value of "Superfood"?


4.    How may the term "Superfood" influence consumers?


5.    What are your thoughts on the inclusion of health claims on  packaged foods



6.    In your opinion what initiates the greatest influence on the consumers choice of a 'Superfood' marketer,  brand or the dietician and medical claims







To controlled diet Consumer

1.    How would you define "Superfood"?


2.    Have you perceived any influences in your shopping experience? Branding, Pricing, Labelling, health claim



3.    How do you evaluate what you consume?


4.    What is your personal perspective of the media coverage of items that you identify as "Superfood"?



5.    How the media coverage of health claiming influences your purchase behaviour?


6.    Does "Superfood" claiming change your perception on food and influence your purchase behaviour?




Piloted Questionnaire: Semi-structured phase one

Addition was provided if no answer in Question:8

To consumers

This questionnaire is designed to collect the perception of consumers on foods. And what influence our decision on a particular product.

Qualifying questions


1.    Age: 18+

2.    Thinking of your own house hold ….Do you select your food?


 Food shopping experience

3.    Thinking of your supermarket shopping experience what are the factors that motivate your selection of foods.  In terms of

1 Brand –

2 Packaging –

3 Pricing –

4 Promotions –

What other factors do you think influence your supermarket shopping?

 Perception on Food

4.    Why would you consider what food you put into your body?  How may this affect your purchases?


5.    When deciding on food would you consider yourself to be a rationale or emotional consumer why? –


 Influence on decision-making

6.    How may the dietary information provided by manufacturers of foods influence your purchase decision? How do you collect this information?

7.    Which communication media are most influential your foods choice?


"Superfood" labelling claim

8.    How would you define the term "Superfood"?

(If there is no answer from consumer who perceived the meaning of "Superfood", additional guiding was given as "Superfood" relates to food with health benefit in order to answer to the following questions).

9.    Can you list me any products you would consider to be a "Superfood"?

10.Which "Superfood" product have you consumed? –Why?

Thank you Very much for your attention and participation.


Example of "Superfood":

Oats, seeds, watercress, red peppers, mackerel, herring, salmon, tuna, berries (especially blueberries), eggs, winter squash, beetroot, broccoli, sweet potatoes, red wine, live yoghurt, pomegranate juice, dark chocolate, turkey, tomatoes, brown rice, almonds, green tea, ginger, rhubarb, linseed, avocado, wheatgrass, durian fruit, Goji-berry.

Pregnancy "Superfood"

Bananas, oranges, other fresh fruit dried apricots and prunes Broccoli and other green vegetables Salmon and other oily fish Wholemeal bread Brown rice Lean red meat Chicken and turkey Yoghurt

Pulses and lentils Fortified breakfast cereals Nuts (not peanuts) and seeds (ie sesame


Marks and Spenser (2006)

Available from:



food From glamorgan






Glossary of terms


Mintel march 2008 on functional food

Functional ingredients


A wide range of functional ingredients is already evident in different functional food and drink products, and many others are currently being researched. To avoid misleading consumers, it is important to ensure that the scientific evidence for the beneficial effects is sufficiently robust. Functional ingredients relevant to this report include:



Substances that reduce the activity of 'free radicals', which can react with, and damage important components of the cells. Research is still underway to determine the minimum and maximum levels of antioxidants that should be consumed daily. The most common antioxidants are vitamins A, C and E, as well as selenium, co-Q10, and the carotenoids such as beta-carotene and lycopene, which occur in many fruit and vegetables.




An essential mineral. Globally, it is the ingredient most frequently added to functional foods. In addition to building a strong skeleton, it is essential for muscle function, hormone regulation and enzyme activation.



Fatty acids  

A wide range of fat and oil substances including polyunsaturated, omega 3 (DHA/EPA) and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid). Omega 3 is derived from fish and marine oils; it may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease and improve mental and visual functions. CLA, found in cheese and meat products, may decrease the risk of certain cancers.




A main component of cereals and bread, and added to other products including juices. There are two types of fibre: soluble and insoluble. Oat bran and psyllium are the only two fibres allowed by the US FDA to make claims related to cholesterol reduction and heart disease. Other soluble fibres could also potentially be used in functional foods. Insoluble fibre is contained in wheat bran. Non-digestible fibres have been shown to benefit the body by selectively stimulating the activity of friendly bacteria in the colon. They possibly play a role in preventing colon cancer. Currently found in some breakfast cereals and breakfast/cereal bars.



Folic acid

A member of the B group of vitamins that, with high intakes, can help to prevent the development of neural tube defects (eg spina bifida) in the developing foetus. Folic acid is necessary for dividing cells, and for the synthesis of DNA and red blood cells. Evidence also suggests a protective effect of folic acid, along with other B vitamins (B6 andB12), against heart disease.



Natural herbal extracts

For example aloe vera, a common ingredient in cosmetics, household paper and detergent products, is just finding its way into functional foods and drinks. When ingested, it is said to stimulate the immune system and help detoxify the body.




Non-digestible carbohydrate that selectively stimulates growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of 'friendly' bacteria in the colon, which can improve health.




Live 'friendly' bacteria that have a positive influence on the composition and activity of the residual gut bacteria residing in the intestinal tract. Probiotic bacteria have specific functions. For example, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have shown positive effects in improving lactose digestion, reducing cholesterol, yeast infections and colon cancer and boosting the immune system.




Substances that mimic female oestrogenic hormones and may therefore help to reduce menopausal symptoms.



Plant sterols

Naturally occurring substances in vegetable oils, fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains. They are similar in structure to cholesterol and thus help to prevent the absorption of cholesterol into the body. They are esterified for use in foods and intake reduces LDL (bad) cholesterol levels.



Plant stanols  

Similar in chemical structure to plant sterols, except that the molecules are saturated. Plant stanol esters, which are formed by esterifying plant stanols with fatty acids such as sunflower oil, have been shown to decrease blood LDL cholesterol levels by inhibiting cholesterol absorption.



Soya protein

A rich source of isoflavones, belonging to a group of components called phytoestrogens, which are found in plant foods. It has been suggested that a high consumption of isoflavones from soya may reduce menopausal symptoms. Isoflavones also have strong antioxidant properties. Soya is a source of soluble fibre.




Functional stimulatory drinks include a range of substances, including guarana, gingko biloba, ginseng, taurine, glucuronolactone and B vitamins that aim to increase alertness and energy.



Whole grains  

An important source of a range of nutrients such as B vitamins, antioxidants such as vitamin E and selenium, and phytochemicals (naturally occurring plant substances). Whole grains are suggested to play a role in the prevention of diseases such as heart disease and cancer.


















Appendix on Value in food

From Zanoli and Naspetti 2002: 649-650

Hierarchical value map of positive ladders of regular consumers





Hierarchical value map of negative ladders of regular consumers




Hierarchical value map of positive ladders of Occasional consumers



Hierarchical value map of negative ladders of Occasional consumers




0 commentaire - Permalien - Partager